The Psychopathology Approaches
In 1986, Freud designed the theory of Psychodynamic behaviorism's, which views abnormal behavior is caused by unconscious, psychological forces. The first part of Freud’s theory can be described as the iceberg model. It includes the conscious, pre conscious and unconscious. The conscious; which takes the first 7th of the ‘iceberg’, is the awareness we have when we are awake. the pre-conscious; taking place in the boundary, contains memories of dreams, giving clues about the unconscious. The Preconscious is structured. Therefor, when remembering a dream, we’re not remembering the dream, but in fact a highly encoded idea. This mechanism protects us so we are not subjected to what the pre-conscious is really thinking. Finally, the Unconscious holds secret wishes and fears, traumatic experiences and is completely hidden from us, with no way of accessing it. The unconscious is necessary for basic survival as it helps people to forget past traumas and move on. The unconscious mind falls within the 6/7th of the iceberg model.
Expanding on the Iceberg model, Freud explained human interactions and actions through the use of the Id, ego and superego. The Id is the part of the human mind that is developed first at a young age, and lives by the pleasure principle. The id tells us what we want, and when we want it. This can be shown through infants, when they seek drink, food, warmth, or attention. When referring to the iceberg, the id falls under the unconscious section of the mind. Developed around the age of 2, the ego is the part of the human mind that follows the reality principle. The ego helps us to survive as too often can humans get carried away with ideas and their imagination, and the ego helps us to think realistically and plan for the future. The Id and the Ego both follow two conflicting principles, so when the id gets carried away, the ego draws it back into line. The ego however, is still selfish in its own, for example protecting an individual from harm. Developed last (age 3) is the superego. The superego goes by the morality principle and is the only unselfish part of the human mind, and Freud’s iceberg model. The superego is the conscience of the human mind, causing it to always feel guilty and anxious and wants to follow morals very strictly.
The Libido is also a term developed by Freud. The Libido is often seen as the ‘sex drive’ although, in Freud’s opinion, this is wrong because he believes it is the inborn energy that motivates us or drives us to survive and that sexual activity can be one manifestation.
Another thing that Freud devised was the psychosexual stages of development which explains the developmental stages an individual goes through whilst maturing from the age of 0 to puberty. The first stage develops between 0-2 years and is called the oral stage. This is the stage at which a child gets pleasure from putting things in their mouth. Trust and optimism is developed at this stage, through oral satisfaction. The Id works within the oral stage as it is what pushes the child to need food, which satisfies oral stimulation through feeding or sucking. Weaning is the most important developments achievement because if ‘stuck’ at this stage, it can lead to a person’s personality becoming pessimistic, distrusting, cynical or aggressive - which is usually caused by a lack of oral stimulation. This is called oral fixation. Developing from the age of 2 or 3, the secondary stage of Freud’s psychosexual development theory is the anal stage; being when the focus of pleasure shifts to the child’s anus. This being the age when most children are potty trained, it gives them an awareness of their bowel system. There are contrasting effects if an infant end up stuck at this stage. If a parent was to push their child into going to the toilet, the child could develop reluctance to about giving away anything, causing them to be shy and also becoming, in extensive cases, a...
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