Psychometrics

Topics: Psychometrics, Item response theory, Francis Galton Pages: 4 (715 words) Published: December 4, 2014
PSYCHOMETRI
CS
BRENDA, GISSELLE, SAVANNAH, NATHALIE

HISTORY OF PSYCHOMETRICS
• Psychometrics dates back to military proficiency tests by the Chinese emperor in 2200 B.C. to assess fitness for office.
• Psychometrics as a science began in Cambridge between 1886 and 1889. • The first laboratory dedicated to the subject was set up within the Cavendish Physics Laboratory in the University of Cambridge by James McKeen Catell in 1887. • Charles Darwin was the inspiration behind Sir Francis Galton who led to the creation of psychometrics.

• In 1859, Charles Darwin published his book "The Origin of Species", which pertained to individual differences in animals. It discussed how individual members in a species differ and those that possess characteristics that are more adaptive and successful are the ones that survive and give way to the next generation, who would be just as or more adaptive and successful.

HISTORY OF PSYCHOMETRICS CONT.
• The idea of evolution, studied previously in animals, led to Galton's interest and study of human beings and how they differ one from another, and more importantly, how to measure those differences. • Galton wrote a book entitled "Hereditary Genius" about different characteristics that people possess and how those characteristics make them more "fit" than others.

• Today these differences, such as sensory and motor functioning (reaction time, visual acuity, and physical strength) are important domains of scientific psychology.

HISTORY OF PSYCHOMETRICS CONT.
• Much of the early theoretical and applied work in psychometrics was undertaken in an atempt to measure intelligence.
• Francis Galton, often referred to as "the father of psychometrics," devised and included mental tests among his anthropometric
measures.
• James McKeen Catell, who is considered a pioneer of psychometrics went on to extend Galton's work.
• Catell also coined the term mental test, and is responsible for the research and knowledge which...
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