Psychology Perspective Paper

Powerful Essays
Perspective Paper
Reshona Greenwood
April 9, 2011
Donna Allgood

Perspective Paper
Behaviorism, that approach focuses on measuring also describing that is observable, it was the most significant movement in psychology from the nineteen hundred to about nineteen seventy five, (Lefton & Brannon, 2006). Malone, Jr. & Cruchon state that, “The psychology of the late 20th Century took two forms: one was radical behaviorism, distinctly the minority position. The majority position was the “rest of psychology” (2001, p. 31). In this paper I will compare and contrast the perspectives of John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner with that of Edward C. Tolman. I will also describe how each perspective relates to the field of modern-day psychology.
John B. Watson
John B. Watson, sometimes he overlooked for the next to work of the B.F. skinner. Which is on when coined the term of behaviorism, he is one of the responsible for “its infiltration into mainstream American psychology” (Kretchmar, 2008). He also was aliment that in that nature versus nurture argument, that nurture was all important and a person’s experiences in his or her environment contributed to his or her behavior (Lefton & Brannon, 2006).
“Watson showed that fear could be classically conditioned by presenting a white rat to
Litlte Albert alone with a loud, frightening noise, thereby condition the child to fear the white rat” (Wood, Wood, & Boyd, 2006, p. 262). In his effort to invoke fear into Little Albert, the most critical element of his experiment was the combination of pairing a conditioned stimulus
(the rat) and an unconditioned response (Little Albert’s crying at the strike of the steel bar) with only a brief interval between the two (Wood, Wood, & Boyd, 2007). He concluded from the demonstration of classically conditioning fear in Little Albert that fears which are conditioned, can persist and modify the behaviors of a person throughout his or her life (Wood, Wood, &
Boyd,



References: Elsevier 's Dictionary of Psychological Theories. (2006). Behaviorist, behavioristic, and behaviorism theory Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. (2010). Tolman, Edward C.. Retrieved from http://www.credoreferenc.com/entry/wileycs/tolman_edward_c Koffka, K. (1933). Review of "Purposive behavior in animals and men". Psychological Bulletin, 30(6), 440-451 Tolman, E. C. (1932). Purposive behavior in animals and men. New York And London: The Century Psychology Series, The Century Co Kretchmar, J. (2008). Behaviorism. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=e0h&AN-27577949&site=ehost-live Leary, D. E. (2004). On the conceptual and linguistic activity of psychologists: The study of behavior from the 1890s to the 1990s and beyond. Behavior and Philosophy, 32(-), 13- 35.

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Powerful Essays

    One of the main psychologists in recent history is John B. Watson (1878 - 1958). Watson was responsible for creating Behaviourism by developing on theories discovered by earlier psychologist Pavlov (1849 - 1936). This phenomenon had a profound effect on how psychology developed. The General assumptions of the Behaviourist approach show that it relies on the study of objective and observable behaviours and does not take into consideration any internal thoughts or feelings. Basically, behaviourism is the study of the relationship between a persons environment and their behaviour whilst ignoring the internal thoughts and feelings of the individual (Carlson & Buskist, 1997). The Psychodynamic approach is a stark contrast. This approach was developed by Freud (1856 - 1939) in the 1890s in Vienna and looks at the internal conflicts within a subjects unconscious mind to create theories on the subjects personality development. It also allows treatment for psychological disorders…

    • 1534 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    COLDESTheart

    • 701 Words
    • 2 Pages

    References: Perry, B.D. & Szalavitz, M. (2006). “The Coldest Heart” In The Boy Who Was Raised as a Dog…

    • 701 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    B.F. Skinner, who carried out experimental work mainly in comparative psychology from the 1930s to the 1950s, but remained behaviorism 's best known theorist and exponent virtually until his death in 1990, developed a distinct kind of behaviorist philosophy, which came to be called radical behaviorism. He also claimed to have found a new version of psychological science, which he called behavior analysis or the experimental analysis of behavior (Richard Culatta) The behaviorist theory is a worldview that operates on a principle of “stimulus-response.” All behavior caused by external stimuli all behavior can be explained without the need to consider internal mental states or consciousness. Originators and important contributors of this theory are John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov, B.F. Skinner.…

    • 1146 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    Up until the 1920’s, psychology was defined as the science of mental life. It wasn’t until then that the idea of behaviorism became more prominent in psychology. During the time period between the 1920’s and the 1960’s, American psychologists led by John Watson redefined the meaning of psychology into a science of mental life and observable behavior. Not only did Watson redefine psychology, he also started the psychological school of behaviorism. It was also around this time that Watson and his partner Rosalie Rayner conducted their conditioning experiment. The idea of classical conditioning came into play when behaviorism became a major branch of psychology.…

    • 628 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    The behaviourist theory of psychology was founded by J.B Watson in 1959, and is based around the idea that individuals act in a certain manner because they’ve learnt to behave that way due to a factor in their environment that stimulates a positive or a negative response from them.…

    • 5819 Words
    • 24 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Watson, John B. & MacDougall,[1] William. (1929). The battle of behaviorism: An exposition and an exposure. [A debate between the leading behaviorist and the leading instinct theorist of the early 20th century.…

    • 3714 Words
    • 15 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Behaviorism is a highly deterministic view that declares there is no free will, defines psychology as the science of behavior. Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike and Skinner are the four major psychologists that help develop and enhance this view. They studied behavioral responses and the ways those responses are influenced by stimuli in the environment. .…

    • 342 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    Week 3 Team Paper

    • 1318 Words
    • 5 Pages

    3. Vaughan, W. (1927). The psychology of Alfred Adler. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 21(4), 358-371 EbsocHost…

    • 1318 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    The reader is left with a lasting understanding of the anxiety which Arthur is experiencing, and this creates sympathy for him. The terror which Arthur experiences at intervals throughout the story is demonstrated by when he says “my fear reached a new height, until for a minute I thought I would die of it.” This shows that Arthur’s fears have exceeded anything he has ever experienced before, therefore arousing sympathy in the reader.…

    • 1360 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    John B. Watson is considered the founder of behaviorism. He suggested that psychology should be objective and focus on human behavior. Watson 's views dominated the field of psychology during the first half of the twentieth century. His theories and behavioral techniques that many psychologists have built on are still used today.…

    • 1494 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    During the story, the narrator makes a plan to kill the old man. The chances of a plan made by an insane person is much less likely to work than one made by a mentally stable person. Many times During “The Telltale Heart”, the…

    • 388 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Watson, J. B. (1913) Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Psychological Review, 20, 158-177. doi: 10.1037h0074428…

    • 1028 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Perspectives Paper

    • 1496 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Watson, J. (1913). John Watson and behaviorism . Retrieved October 22, 2012, from Watson: http://www.psych.utah.edu/gordon/Classes/Psy4905Docs/PsychHistory/Cards/Watson.html…

    • 1496 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Puerto Princesa

    • 375 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Little Albert generalized his fear of rats into fear of anything with white fur, including a Santa Claus mask, a…

    • 375 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Obedience to Authority

    • 5512 Words
    • 23 Pages

    Milgram, S. (1963). "Behavioral study of obedience". Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology (67): 371–378…

    • 5512 Words
    • 23 Pages
    Powerful Essays

Related Topics