Definition of psychology: Psychology: the science of behavior and mental processes Science: approach to knowledge based on systematic observation Behavior: directly observable and measurable human actions Mental processes: private psychological activities that include thinking, perceiving, and feeling Theories: tentative explanation of facts and relationship in sciences
4 goals of psychology: 1. Describe: the information gathered through specific research helps psychologists describe psychological phenomena more accurately and completely. 2. Predict: psychologists are able to predict future behavior. 3. Understand: behavior and mental processes when we can explain why they happen. 4. Influence: psychologists hope to go beyond description, understanding, and prediction to influence behavior in beneficial ways.
Introspection: the process of looking inward at one’s own consciousness
Structuralism: the 19th century school of psychology that sought to determine the structure of the mind through controlled introspection.
Gestalt psychology: the school of thought based on the belief that human consciousness cannot be broken down into its elements
Gestalt: an organized or unified whole
Phi phenomenon: the perceptions of apparent movement between two stationary stimuli
J. Henry Alston: is the best known for his studies of the sensations of heat and cold. He discovered that we feel cold when one kind of nerve ending in the skin is stimulated, and we feel warm feel intense heat only when both the warmth and cold receptors in the skin are stimulated at the same time.
Functionalism: the 19th century school of psychology that emphasized the useful functions of consciousness
Cognition: mental processes of perceiving, believing, thinking, remembering, knowing, deciding, and so on.
Cognitive psychology: the viewpoint in psychology that emphasizes the importance of cognitive processes, such as