Psychology Notes

Topics: Developmental psychology, Child development, Adolescence Pages: 7 (1653 words) Published: August 25, 2014
Chapter 1 – Human Development
Categories of culture, race, and ethnicity are fluid, continuously shaped and redefined by social and political forces.

Cognitive Development
Pattern of change in the mental abilities such as learning, attention, memory, language, thinking, reasoning, and creativity. Cohort
A group of people born at about the same time.

Critical period
A specific time when a given event or its absence, had a specific impact on development. Culture
A society’s or group’s total way of life, including customs, traditions, beliefs, values, language, and physical products-all learned behavior passed on from parents to children. Developmental Scientists Study?

Change and stability in all domains of development throughout the life span Domains of Development
Development lists study processes of change and stability in all domains, or aspects of development throughout all periods of the life span. •Physical, cognitive, psychosocial. Each affects the others Environment

The totality of nonhereditary or experiential, influences on development. Ethnic gloss
An overgeneralization that obscures or blurs such variation (term such as Black or Hispanic). Ethnic group
A group united by ancestry, race, religion, language, or national origins which contribute to a sense of shared identity and shared attitudes, beliefs, and values. Ethnicity and cultural patterns

Affect development by their influence on the composition of a household, it economic and social resources, the way its members act toward one another, the foods they eat, the games children play, the way they learn, how well they do in school, the occupations adults engage in, and the way family members think and perceive the world. Extended Family

Multigenerational network of grandparents, uncles, cousins and more distant relatives who often share breadwinning and child rearing responsibilities and the older children are responsible for younger brothers and sisters. Heredity

Is inborn traits or characteristics inherited from the biological parents Historical generation
A group of people strongly influenced by a major historical event during their formative years.

Human Development
The field of human development focuses on the scientific study of the systematic processes of change and stability of people. •Ways of studying human development are still evolving, making use of advanced technologies. •Almost from the start, human development has been interdisciplinary which means that it draws from a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, psychiatry, sociology anthropology, biology, genetics, family science, education, history, and medicine. Imprinting

The instinctive form of learning which during a critical period in early development, a young animal forms and attachment to the first moving object it sees, usually the mother. •Konard Lorenz, Austrian, Zoologist (1957); got a newborn ducklings to follow him. •Lorenz believes that imprinting is the result of (pre) disposition toward learning, that is, the readiness of an organism’s nervous system to acquire certain formation during a brief critical period in early life. Individual differences

Differences in characteristics, influences, or development outcomes. •Influences on development come from both heredity and environment. Many typical change during childhood are related to maturation. Individual differences tend to increase with age. •In some societies, the nuclear family predominates; in others, the extended family. •Socioeconomic status affects developmental process and outcomes through the quality of home and neighborhood environments, nutrition, medical care, and schooling. Multiple risk factors increase the likelihood of poor outcomes. •Influence may be normative (age-graded or history-graded) or nonormative. Life-span development

Developmentalists have come to recognize that human development is a lifelong process. Maturation
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