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Psychology final study guide

By anjaleedeodat Dec 15, 2013 340 Words
I. Personality Theory and Assessment
A. Theories of personality:
i. Freud (still never the answer
1. 3 levels of consciousness:
2. Structures of personality
a. Id
b. Ego
c. Superego
3. Defense Mechanisms
a. Repression
b. Projection
c. Denial
d. Rationalization
e. Regression
f. Reaction formation
g. Sublimation
4. Psychosexual stages of development
a. Oral
b. Anal
c. Phallic (Oedipus conflict)
d. Latent
e. Genital
5. Criticisms of Freud
ii. Neo-Freudians
1. Carl Jung
a. Collective unconscious
b. archetypes
2. Alfred Adler
a. Inferiority complex
b. Birth order theory
3. Karen Horney
a. 3 selves
b. Focus on culture
iii. Humanistic theories of personality
1. Abraham Maslow and the hierarchy of needs
2. Carl Rogers and conditions of worth
iv. Trait theories of personality
1. Gordon Allport
a. Cardinal traits
b. Central traits
c. Secondary traits
2. Raymond Cattell
a. Surface traits
b. Source traits
c. 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PFQ)
3. Hans Eysenck’s PEN Model
4. Jung’s four functions of the mind/Myers-Briggs
5. Costa & McCrae’s Five Factor Model – OCEAN
v. Social cognitive theories of personality
1. Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism
2. Rotter’s Locus of Control
B. Measuring and studying personality
i. Nature vs. Nurture
1. Minnesota twins studies/Jim study
2. Loehlin adoption studies
3. Cultural influence – Hofstede’s world-wide study
ii. Personality assessment methods
1. Observation
2. Interviews
3. Personality Inventories
a. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
b. California Personality Inventory (CPI)
c. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
4. Projective Tests
a. Rorschach Test
b. Thematic Aperception Test (TAT)

II. Stress
A. Sources of stress
i. Life Changes
1. Holmes & Rahe
2. Social Readjustment Rating Scale
ii. Daily Hassles
1. Lazarus & DeLongis
2. Kanner Hassle Scale
3. Lazarus’ Uplift Scale
iii. Decision making
1. Stress of having no choices
2. Stress of choosing
a. Approach-approach
b. Avoidance-avoidance
c. Approach-avoidance
d. Double approach-avoidance
iv. Stress in the workplace
1. Albrecht’s 9 factors for job satisfaction
2. Burn out
B. Responding to Stress
i. Hans Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome
1. Alarm stage
2. Resistance stage
3. Exhaustion stage
ii. Lazarus’ Cognitive Theory of Stress
1. Primary appraisal
2. Secondary appraisal
iii. Coping strategies
1. Problem-focused
2. Emotion-focused
iv. Stress and health/illness
1. Coronary heart disease
2. Cancer
3. Diabetes
4. Immune system changes
v. Reducing stress/ resiliency & hardiness
1. Commitment
2. Control
3. Challenge

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