psychology core studies

Topics: Validity, Scientific method, Psychology Pages: 35 (10268 words) Published: December 12, 2013
Past exam questions and mark schemes for Core Studies 1 (2540)

2540 Mark scheme January 2008

Cognitive Psychology
1. From the study by Loftus and Palmer outline one limitation of the laboratory method used to investigate memory. [2] Any one from: low ecological validity, demand characteristics, artificial etc 2 marks Other appropriate answers Term and Example related to study 2 marks Partially correct answer Term OR example 1 mark

2. In the study by Baron-Cohen, Leslie and Frith autistic children were studied: (a) Identify the other two groups of children who were studied. [2] Any two from: Downs syndrome, ‘normal’ 2 marks
(b) Explain why it was necessary to have these other groups. [2] Any one from: to provide a baseline measurement/comparison to control for intelligence 2 marks Partially correct answer To show autistic children lack a theory of mind 1 mark

3. Outline one ethical implication of teaching Washoe to use sign language in the study by Gardner and Gardner. [2] Any one from: protection – she was alienated from her species, difficult to re integrate her after the study. 2 marks Other appropriate answers Consent, Right to withdraw with explanation 2 marks Partially correct answer Term identified without explanation eg. Only with Gardners 1 mark

4. Deregowski describes various experiments on pictorial perception carried out in Africa. Outline the procedure for two of these experiments. [4] Any two from: Hudson’s picture, cube construction, Gregory’s apparatus, trident illusion split elephant, anecdotal evidence 2 marks each Partially correct answer Basic identification of task 1 mark NOT Findings

Developmental Psychology
5. From the study by Bandura, Ross and Ross on imitation of aggression: (a) Identify two of the independent variables in the study. [2] Any two from: gender of child, gender of modal, aggressive/non aggressive model, 1 mark each (b) Outline one weakness of conducting this study on children. [2] Any one from: ethics – consent, protection etc, difficulties in them understanding, 2 marks Other appropriate answers Identification AND description 2 marks Partially correct answer Identification OR description 1 mark

6. From the study by Hodges and Tizard identify two differences in the quality of relationships experienced by the ex-institutional adolescents and the control group. [2] Any two from: control group showed more affection, confiding etc 1 mark each To gain full marks for each the difference needs to be clear

7. Outline one way in which the study by Freud on little Hans may have been biased. [2] Any one from: Father may have interpreted Hans’s behaviour in subjective way; Freud may have interpreted father’s reports in biased way. Father was a supporter of Freuds theory 2 marks Partially correct answer Identification without explanation 1 mark

8. The table below shows some of the results from the study by Samuel and Bryant on conservation. Outline two conclusions that could be drawn from this table. [4]

Mean errors made in each condition across materials
Age Standard One judgement Fixed array
5yr 9 7 7
6yr 6 4 6
7yr 3 3 5
8yr 2 1 6

Any two from: age affects conservation, number of questions asked affects conservation, seeing the transformation affects conservation. With evidence from table 2 marks each Partially correct answer Conclusion without evidence 1 mark

Physiological Psychology
9. Identify two measurements that were taken in the study on sleep and dreaming by Dement and Kleitman. [2] Any two from: EEG – measured eye movement/patterns, brain activity, REM or NREM dream recall, duration of dream 1 mark each

10. From the study by Sperry on split brain patients:
(a) Identify two ways in which information could be sent to the left hemisphere. [2] Any two from:...
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