Psychology and Personality Differences

Topics: Psychology, Trait theory, Personality psychology Pages: 11 (2528 words) Published: September 26, 2011
Contents Page

Title of pagePage Number

Cover Page1
Contents Page2

Question 1 -1.1 Types of individual difference factors3

1.2 Determinants of personality and individual differences5

Question 2 -2.1 various types of research variables7

2.2 The models of work performance measurements8

Question 3 - 3.1 the impact of gender differences on work behavior10

3.2 Fair discrimination and individual differences11

Question 4 - Four types of learners12

Question 5 - Self assessment questions13


Question 1

Question 1.1

Types of individual differences factors

Over the years research and assessment from personality theory have identifies a number of personality and personal factors or attributes which make people either different or the same.

The factors that make us unique are the following...

*Cognitive ability
As every one is unique, very one has unique cognitive as well as other abilities. This referring to and individual’s capability to perform various tasks in the work place as we are dealing with the organizational context.

Two different factors make up individual abilities. These factors are intellectual abilities, which are the abilities that are needed to perform mental; activities, and physical abilities. Physical abilities are those abilities required to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength and similar skills.

* Personality traits
A personality trait is an enduring characteristic that describes behavior across a variety of situations. The more frequently a characteristic is displayed across diverse situations, the more important that is in describing that person.

Some traits in the workplace that might differ according different individuals include conscientiousness, if they are hardworking, independent and dependable. Some others include stress related traits or types of locus of control, authoritarian, self-monitoring, self-esteem, introversion versus extraversion, conscientiousness and neurotism. These have all been researched extensively in the work context.

The 3 factor model is a trait approach used to determine personality and has now been related to work behavior. The following is a diagram of the 5 factor model ******diagram*******

Over time, traits essentially remain the same. Thus the business world has a strong belief in the power of traits to predict personality. Therefore companies spend a great deal of money and time on interview and tests.

These aspects are related to peoples motivation and are responsible for work performance,
# Interests: are specific action tendencies in personality which motivate people to pursue certain activities and jobs. Combining interests and job competencies create the enjoyment of jobs.
# Values: Another determinant of personality and behavior is individual values. Values strongly influence a person’s attitudes and behaviors. Although they don’t have a direct impact on performance. Creating a fit between values and an organization will improve performance, whilst a misfit could cause problems. Values also influence career anchors. Career anchors are distinct patterns of self perceived talents and abilities, motive, needs, attitudes and values that guide and stabilize an individuals career after several years of work experience.

# Attitudes: these reflect a person’s belief about things, ideas and people. They have intellectual, emotional and behavioral aspects. Cognitive dissonance refers to possible imbalances in knowledge about things which if corrected may result in changed attitudes and thus changes behaviors. This concept is often used in connection with attitude change.

* Emotional or affective states:
A great deal of work related research indicates that motivational value of emotional arousal and its strong influence on work performance. We often relate our emotional life to...
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