psychology

Topics: Reinforcement, Operant conditioning, Experimental analysis of behavior Pages: 4 (894 words) Published: December 4, 2013
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respondent behavior: behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus (in CC) •operant conditioning: a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher ➢operant behavior: behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences

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law of effect: Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely •operant chamber: in operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal’s rate of bar pressing or key pecking •shaping: an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior ➢Shaping can also help us understand what nonverbal organisms perceive •discriminative stimulus: in operant conditioning, a stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement (in contrast to related stimuli not associated with reinforcement) •reinforcer: in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows •positive reinforcement: increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response •negative reinforcement: increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: negative reinforcement is not punishment.) •Whether it works by reducing something aversive, or by giving something desirable, reinforcement is any consequence that strengthens behavior •primary reinforcer: an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need •conditioned...
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