Topics: Psychology, Clinical psychology, Consciousness Pages: 3 (979 words) Published: October 31, 2013
Chapter One

Psychology started as a speculation and has evolved into science over years. . It was born as an independent discipline. The discovery began in 1870 by a small number of scholars. The founders are disciplines of philosophy and physiology which share an interest in the mysteries of the mind. In 1832- 1920 Wilhelm Wundt changed the view, he created the first laboratory in 1879 in Leipzig Germany. He mounted a campaign to make psychology and independent discipline rather then a stepchild of philosophy or physiology. Wundt argued that psychology should be the scientific study of consciousness- the awareness of immediate experience. One of Wundt student G. Stanley Hall (1864- 1924) played a big part as one of the contributor in psychology in North American in the late 19th century. In 1892 he main person involved and helped with the creation of the American Psychological Association better know as (APA) he was also elected the first president.

Structuralism relies on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related. Introspection is the careful systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience. It requires training to make the subject or the person being studied more objective and more aware. Functionalism is based on the theory that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure. William James 1842-1910 is a brilliant American scholar that believed that psychology should focus on the purpose and adaptive functions of consciousness. This left a more enduring imprint on psychology.

Sigmund Freud 1856-1939 believes that the conscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but nonetheless exert great influence on behavior. His psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on...
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