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Psychology

By appysingh Jan 09, 2013 8794 Words
What is psychology?
The term "psychology" is derived from two Greek words – psyche (soul) and logos (science or study). Thus, literally it means study or science of soul. But now it is no more considered as science of soul. It has moved away from this focus and established itself as a scientific discipline which deals with the various processes and behaviour of organism. Most of the contemporary psychologists agree on a definition of psychology as the scientific study of behaviour and mental processes of organism. For more definitions of psychology, see Box#1. There are three key terms in the above definition of psychology which have been clarified below: Definitions of Psychology

• Psychology is the science of the activities of individual in relation to the environment (Woodworth). • Psychology is the positive science of behaviour (Watson). • Psychology is the science of human behaviour and experience (Cruze). • Psychology is the science of mental activity of an organism (Guilford). • According to Charles E. Skinner, psychology deals with the responses to any and every kind of situation that life presents. By responses or behaviour is meant all forms of processes, adjustments, activities, and experiences of the organism. Scientific study means using techniques such as observation, description, and experimental investigation to collect information and then organising this information. Mental processes refer to private and cognitive process such as attention, perception, remembering (memory), problem-solving, reasoning, decision-making, feelings, thinking, motives etc. Behaviour refers to all the actions or reactions of an organism (person or animal) in response to external or internal stimuli. The behaviour of an individual, in a broad sense, refers to anything theindividual does. According to Leagans (1961), behaviour refers to what an individual knows (Knowledge), what s/he can do (skill – mental or physical), what s/he thinks (attitude), and what s/he actually does. Behaviour may be simple or complex, short or enduring. Human behaviour may be overt (expressed outside) or covert (expressed inside). While symbolic adoption is an example of covert behaviour, use adoption is an example of overt behaviour. Both overt and covert behaviour can be measured. People who study psychological phenomena are not necessarily limited to the study of human beings only; they also study the behaviour of animals. They study the behaviour and mental processes of individual not of group/community. Thus, when they are studying groups, the focus is generally on how individuals perform within the group rather than the study of the group as a whole. List of Branches of Psychology

There are 10 main branches of psychology. While I cannot really please my heart by explaining each of these in complete detail, I will explain the concept of each branch with a short example of usage (psst... don't tell anyone. The example is especially for you!). 

Abnormal Psychology
Abnormal psychology is the study of certain behavioral abnormalities in a person's psyche. Like, neuroses, psychoses and mental retardation. Hypnosis and mesmerism are often used for treatment in this branch of psychology. Abnormal psychology is one of the most basic forms of psychology study, and is taught in Law and Human Resource Management studies as well. 

Example - "Jenna was a normal girl. She had a twin brother, and the two of them were the best of friends. At the age of 13 Jenna's brother, Albert, died due to a car crash. Post the accident, Jenna, who was once a vivacious and popular girl, became very shy. She barely had any friends, and gave up hope in life. Her grades started to fall and she started avoiding people and clung to her family all the time. Further psychoanalysis showed that Jenna was showing early signs of fear of abandonment".

Behavioral Psychology
Behavioral psychology is the more popular term used for behavioral neuroscience, or biopsychology, or psychobiology. It studies the mental processes and the behavioral patterns of humans as well as non-human subjects. Behavioral psychology basically studies the behavior of an individual (human or otherwise) to gage the psychological state of that individual. Treatment is this branch of psychology is more physical, like electrolytic lesions and chemical lesions. This branch of psychology is more concerned with the physical functioning of the brain and its cells. 

Example - "David was a normal 18-year-old. He loved partying and loved spending time with his boyfriend. Yes, David was gay. For this fact David faced a lot of opposition from his parents. They insulted him and the family had arguments on a daily basis. Due to this fact, David found solace in smoking marijuana. Soon he was addicted to it, and could not function without it. Sadly, David died at the age of 20, of a drug overdose." Read more on addiction.

Clinical Psychology
Clinical psychology is the branch of psychology that is the scientific study of the prevention, understanding and the relieving of psychologically based issues. Psychological assessment and psychotherapy are the means of treatment used in this field of psychology. Nonetheless, clinical psychology also stresses a great deal on research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and program development and administration. It is also referred to as counseling psychology. So, one can say that clinical psychologists are the general practitioners of the psychology field. 

Example - "Hannah was a working mom. She and her husband had a very long, but extremely dysfunctional marriage. When he divorced her, Hannah was left with the responsibility of two children. Which meant, longer hours at office, exams, dance recitals, PTA meeting, basketball games and the odds and evens. This left Hannah with no time to meet anyone, chill out and de-stress. Soon, Hannah was found losing her temper at her kids and slacking off at work. One of her colleagues suggested that she see a clinical psychologist. A month into psychotherapy, Hannah has started to get her peace of mind back!"

Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that deals with the internal mental processes of thought such as visual processing, memory, problem solving, and language. It basically looks over the information processing functioning of the brain. So, it looks into concepts like perception, aging, memory, emotions, decision-making, etc. It is one of the most recent branches of psychology.

Example - (I will not be able to give a very generic example of cognitive psychology as it is mostly used in accompaniment with behavioral or any other branch of psychology.)

Community Psychology
Community psychology studies the psychology of individuals and the dynamics in a community. It studies the concepts of diplomacy, etc, that are characteristic to community oriented behavior. It studies adaptation, cycling, succession and interdependence. It helps a community understand empowerment, social justice, citizen participation, etc. It is also referred to as critical psychology.

Example - "Jason, Joshua and Janet were members of a social service group that facilitated mindset altering in conservative regions. They were community psychologists, and took up the challenge of reducing occurrences of female infanticide in a small village in India. After a year of educating the men as well as the women in the village, they started a project on woman empowerment, and later took the step into stopping female infanticide. After 5 long years of working, thanks to their understanding of the community psychology, they succeeded at bringing about massive change in the mindset of the people in the village."

Developmental Psychology
Developmental psychology is the study of the systematic changes that occur in a human being and his psyche over the course of life. It is also concerned with early child development and care. Each individual goes through certain changes during their life. Developmental psychology is the branch of psychology that studies this progression and helps understand these changes, their causes and effects, better. 

Example - "Marianne and Thomas had a child. They were elated the day their son Matthew was born. However, Matthew was not like other children. He was always happy, but showed reluctance to learn. He did not start speaking till he was a year old, that too in incomprehensible terms. Marianne then figured that she rather consult a developmental psychologist, who identified the problem as advanced dyslexia and started treatment on the child. By the time Matthew was 5 years old, he was just as capable as any other child out there."

Educational Psychology
Educational psychology is the branch of psychology that is used in educational institutions. It deals with learning disorders, "gifted" students, peer pressure, adolescence, sex education in children, etc. Educational psychologists are mostly the school counselors. Educational psychology is also referred to as school psychology. It comes in handy in colleges as well. It basically concentrates on student life.

Example - "Henry was a typical school bully. He spent most of his week after school in detention. Henry was also a straight-A student. He was good at basketball but never went for the tryouts. Henry was a senior and never had a girlfriend. He had a "gang" of "peeps" however, he never called them friends. After a year of weekly sessions with the educational psychologist at school, it was discovered that Henry was suffering from extremely low self-esteem, which is masked off as a superiority complex."

Evolutionary Psychology
Evolutionary psychology is the branch of psychology that studies the most primal psychological stimuli in human begins. It is believed by evolutionary scientists, that while it is absolutely natural for a human being to pick out linguistic skills, the same does not hold true for reading and writing. They are adaptive skills. It is also natural for a human being to gage another human being's emotional state of mind, and the ability to recognize a kin from another.

Example - "Evolutionary psychologists believe that technique of a male to attract a mate would be to prove that he is the alpha male, by defeating the other competing males in a battle of physical strength. While even in current social scenarios, males do make the attempt to prove themselves as alpha males, they have a different method of going about it. They now prefer to win a woman over, by proving to be more classy, suave and able to protect them, if the need be."

Legal Psychology
Legal psychology is basically the same as cognitive and clinical psychology. However, a legal psychologist has to assist in the process of crime investigation. This branch of psychology used this understanding, to judge the testimonies and statements of the witnesses or the victims, giving the investigation the extra push that it may need. More so, it works at understanding a certain witness or victim's perception from the legal point of view.

Example - "Thia was a legal psychologist. She basically worked with a lawyer and detective (Perry Mason sorts) and always accompanied him when he investigated any case that he took up. She helped at interrogating people and at understanding the motive of the crime. She often helped him, with her understanding of psychology, to crack a tough knot in a case, thus helping out an innocent from being sentenced."

Personality Psychology
Personality psychology is the branch of psychology that governs the legitimate IQ tests and the personality tests that one takes to understand themselves better. It is the branch of psychology that puts a wholesome picture in front of an individual about themselves. It also studies specific personality disorders like narcissistic personality disorder, etc. It helps an individual see themselves in a more objective light.

Example - " Rihanna was a typical teenager. She suffered from the typical confusion relating self. She was popular and had a lot of friends, but she still craved being unnoticed at times. She often felt lonely at night. Despite popular belief (about her) Rihanna was a virgin. After months and months of  ing to surmise herself, Rihanna decided to go in for a personality test. The results astounded her. She was suffering from the greed for popularity. This kept her away from her true calling. She loved art, but ended up being a cheerleader. Many such revelations came as a surprise to her. Soon, she followed her true calling and found happiness."

Motivation
Intrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic motivation comes from within. It’s the sort of motivation that you get when you’re doing something you enjoy; when the task itself is its own reward. Think of something you love – perhaps computer games, playing the guitar, cooking, painting … any activity you enjoy. You never procrastinate over it, do you? It seems almost silly to ask that – of course you don’t, if anything, you put off other tasks in order to do the ones you enjoy! One way to make your to-do list easier is to put as many tasks on it as possible which are things you love. Sometimes they might be hard, or you might feel a little resistance to getting started – but once you’re doing them, you find them fun. In some cases, that might mean rethinking your career choice or your lifestyle. If your life is made up of a whole string of unexciting or unpleasant tasks, how did you get into that situation? What can you do to change it? When you’re engaged on something which makes you intrinsically motivated, you’ll find that: * It’s fairly easy to maintain your concentration

* You’re keen to do well because the task deserves your best effort * You’d do it whether or not you were paid or rewarded in any way Intrinsic motivation can be a powerful force – but it can also be subject to your moods; when you’re feeling cheerful and upbeat, you’re more likely to enjoy what you’re working on than when you’re feeling low. And for some tasks, there’s simply no way you’re going to enjoy them. That’s where extrinsic motivation comes in. Extrinsic Motivation

Extrinsic motivation comes from outside. This is the motivation which gets you to plough on with something you don’t like all that much … because you know there’ll be a reward at the end. Think of a time in your life when you stuck with something in order to reach a particular goal: maybe you studied hard in college not because you loved studying, but because you wanted to get your degree. Or perhaps you worked in a job that bored you because you needed the paycheck. On a day to day level, you probably clean your house because you want it to be a pleasant place to live – not because you really love cleaning. Sometimes, people think that extrinsic motivation is shallow or false – but it can be a very powerful force. Most difficult things become more bearable when you’ve got something to look forward to at the end. With extrinsic motivation, you’ll find that:

* It might be hard to concentrate – you may be tempted to procrastinate * You want to do the task to a high enough standard to get the reward or achieve the goal at the end, but you don’t care much about it being perfect or excellent. * You’d be much more reluctant to do it if there was no reward External motivation is easier to manufacture than intrinsic motivation. If you have a string of tasks which need to be done, but which don’t interest or excite you in any way, can you find extrinsic motivation? That might mean: * Promising yourself a reward at the end (e.g. a cookie, a new DVD, some “me time” to indulge) * Focusing on the goal rather than on the process – the finished result * Finding a way for the completed task to give you public acknowledgement or acclaim (easier said than done – taking a qualification would be one way, or joining an organization focused on that particular area)

Employee Motivation Techniques
Motivating employees is an important skill for supervisors, managers, and business owners to have. When developing motivation plans, it is important to recognize the individual differences among employees and realize that not all motivation techniques will work for everyone. Each employee must be evaluated to determine what motivates them the most. Below are several ideas for motivating employees and preventing job boredom or job overload. Employee Motivation Through Job Rotation

Job rotation, also known as cross-training, can be very effective for employees that perform repetitive tasks in their job. Job rotation allows the employees to learn new skills by shifting them from one task to another.  Employee Motivation Through Job Enlargement

Job enlargement is a motivation technique used for employees that perform very few and simple tasks. Job enlargement increases the number and variety of tasks that the employee performs, resulting in a feeling of importance.  Employee Motivation Through Job Enrichment

This method increases the employees control over the work being performed. It allows employees to control the planning, execution, and evaluation of their own work, resulting in freedom, independence, and added responsibility.  Employee Motivation Through Flextime

Flextime allows employees to choose their own work schedule, to a certain extent. For example, if the office is open from 8am until 9pm, the employees can come in at any time during that period to complete their 8 hours. Employee Motivation Through Job Sharing

This is a less common method, but very effective at preventing boredom. It allows 2 employees to share 2 different jobs. They could alternate days or weeks, working 20 hours in each position each week. Employee Motivation Through Employee Involvement

People want to feel like they are a part of something. Letting the employees be more active in the decision-making related to their job makes them feel valued and important to the company and increases job motivation.  Employee Motivation Through Variable-Pay Programs

Merit-based pay, bonuses, gain sharing, and stock ownership plans are all great motivators for employees. However, don’t just give them out. Offer them as an incentive or reward for outstanding performance. Motivation Techniques

Do you know how important motivation techniques are? Motivation techniques can mean the difference between success and failure even if you are qualified to succeed.  Even people who use motivation techniques know that without them their enthusiasm would fade.True motivation is not only a learned skill; it is developed due to a need or desire to make our dreams a reality. Only then will you commit to using motivation techniques.

The standard for success across the globe is having a vision that compels you to succeed. Motivation techniques  are the key in accomplishing all your goals.

No matter how many years you spend in a classroom or from what social class or lifestyle, motivation and motivation techniques are the common factor among those who are high achievers. Finding the motivation techniques to put meaning and  purpose in your life, developing a vision, and becoming highly motivated can lead you towards a successful and exciting life.

Here are 12 motivational techniques that can bring you  success:

1. Recognizing obstacles and learning to remove them can make your vision a reality. The individual who is extremely motivated and successful has been motivated by a vision. This is one of the obvious motivation techniques  that many neglect.

2. The quest for freedom is the basis for motivation. Total freedom is not necessarily desirable or possible, but the pursuit of that ideal is what motivates us to succeed.  When you use this outlook as one of your motivation  techniques you tap into a reserve of self motivation.

3. People who develop a vision control their own life and destiny. With no vision, your life and destiny are controlled by outside forces. The application of motivation techniques can change this destiny.

You must change your thinking habits in order to change  your life, and you change your habits by keeping the desired results in sight.

4. Develop a major goal, but take a specified path to get there. You'll have many smaller goals to reach before you get to the final result. Although this sounds simplistic it is one of the motivation techniques that super achievers rely on.

By learning to accomplish these smaller goals, you'll be motivated to take on the larger challenges and you will  see the value in using motivation techniques.

5. Get into the habit of finishing what you start. An unfinished project is of no value. Leaving things unfinished is a habit that must be changed. This energy  drain will make it harder for you to apply all the other motivation techniques you have learned.

6. Find support through friends, acquaintances, and co-workers. If you surround yourself with motivated,visionary people you will naturally develop the attributes that helped them get that way.

Mutual interests and like-minded associates can help you overcome a lack of motivation. So, find help and get using your motivation techniques!

7. Another motivational technique is failure. Failure teaches us to keep trying until we get it right. No one ever became successful without prior failures.

Failure is a by-product of imagination and creativity. It challenges you to take risks and teaches you to keep trying until you get it right.

8. The fear of failure is a common factor among those who procrastinate. If you want to succeed in reaching your goals, you must be willing to take a risk and lose.

Many people trade joy, satisfaction, and fulfillment for a job that is considered conventional and safe. However if  you use fear of failure to spur you on it can be one of the most valuable motivation techniques. 

9. The unfulfilling job is not the failure; not pursuing your dreams is the real failure. Developing a vision requires conquering your fears and finding the courage to use the motivation techniques that do work.

10. The power of your dreams is the primary factor in becoming motivated. Productivity will be the result of developing habits and attitudes that keep you on the right track. And motivation techniques fit right in here

11. By changing bad habits and focusing on your specific goals, motivation will come to you by turning to motivation techniques even when you wish youcould quit and times are tough.

12. By identifying the behaviors that you need to change,developing a vision of what you would like to achieve, and striving to attain that goal, you will become a naturally motivated, highly efficient, productive person who enjoys using motivation techniques to get ahead.

There are many theories about what motivates people. In actuality, you are motivated by both internal and external factors, as there are always a mixture of reasons why you do, achieve, behave, learn and react. Personality and self-concept often determine whether or not you will be intrinsically or extrinsically motivated. If you understand the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors, you have a greater probability of motivating yourself or others. Every behavior has a underlying cause, and understanding the cause of behavior and motivating factors is key to changing or improving outcomes. Intrinsic Motivation

Intrinsic means internal or inside of yourself. When you are intrinsically motivated, you enjoy an activity, course or skill development solely for the satisfaction of learning and having fun, and you are determined to strive inwardly in order to be competent. There is not external inducement when intrinsic motivation is the key to behavior or outcome. Burn Stomach Fat Easily Best Ayurvedic Formula To Reduce Stomach Fat. Buy Fat Free At Rs.399 www.AyurFocus.com/Burn-Stomach-Fat Sponsored Links

Examples of Intrinsic Motivation
When you are motivated intrinsically, you have fun and look for skill development and competency, personal accomplishment and excitement. If you write articles for the curiosity and fun of learning and sharing information or run because it relieves stress and makes you feel better or excites you to improve your personal time, you are intrinsically motivated. As well, when you learn a new game and seek to play it often because it excites you to think differently and work internally to develop your skills, you are motivated by intrinsic measures. Extrinsic Motivation

Extrinsic means external or outside of yourself. This type of motivation is everywhere and frequently used within society throughout your lifetime. When you are motivated to behave, achieve, learn or do based on a highly regarded outcome, rather than for the fun, development or learning provided within an experience, you are being extrinsically motivated. Examples of Extrinsic Motivation

Trophies, medals, money, discounts, grades, entrance to programs or schools, higher commission percentages, new clothes and losing weight are all examples of extrinsic motivators. In childhood, bribery is used, schools use grades, trophies and academic recognition based on good behavior, grocers use discount cards and coupons to save you money while you shop at their store and corporations use bonuses and commission scales to encourage growth and sales numbers. Considerations

The main argument and difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation contends that intrinsic motivation is derived from a self-concept, core beliefs, internal need and development opposed to extrinsic motivators which can undermine these motivations. According to Dr. James Gavin, a professor at Concordia University, motives need to be additive in effect, which means the more reasons you find to motivate yourself to engage in a behavior, the more likely you will continue with and persist in these behaviors. External motivators are typically not additive. 

The differences between intrinsic and extrinsic motivators primarily lie within the reason for doing something. In order for you to ultimately change or improve behavior, you have to understand the reason for the behavior. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors are important to understanding behaviors, regardless of differences

ABOUT PERSONALITY DETERMINANTS:
Personality does not evolved by a single factor. It is a mixture of a lot of things. Some of those factors are psychological, some are physical, some are biological and some are even hereditary. So, I have compiled some of the basic factors that hold great importance when we talk about PERSONALITY DETERMINANTS:

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1. Brain
Brain is one of the most important factors of personality determinant. It is generally believed that the father and the child adopt almost the same type of brain stimulation and the later differences are the result of the environment in which the child has been grown up. Electrical Stimulation of the Brain(ESB) and Split Brain Psychology(SBP) and the outcomes of genetic transmissions and are the tools that are used by the management of any organization to mould and amend the employee’s behavior to a more positive and proper one.

Doesn't size matter? ;)
2. Physical Factors

One of the most important factors in determining personality is the‘Physical Characteristics’ of an individual. It is believed that this factor plays a vital role in determining one’s behavior in any organization. Physical features may involve the height of a person (short or tall), his color (white or black), his health status (fat or skinny) and his beauty (handsome or ugly). These factors are involved when interacting with any other person and thus contribute in the personality development in many ways.

3. Social Factors
Social factors also play a vital role in determining one’s personality. The things that revolve and evolve around us on a regular basis determine our personality. The society that we live in, the cultural environment that we face daily, the community we get interacted to, all are included in this factor. Relationships, co-ordination, co-operation, interaction, environment in the family, organizations, workplaces, communities, societies all contribute in way or another as personality determinants.

4. Cultural and Religious Factors:
The culture in which one lives in, that may involve traditional practices, norms, customs, procedures, rules and regulations, precedents and values, all are important determinants of personality. Moreover, the creed, religion and believes are also very important factors of personality determinants. 5. Heredity Factor:

Perhaps, the most surprising and astonishing factor (at least in my eyes) is the “Heredity Factor”. When I first read about that, I was quite stunned and really gave a bow to nature. The example which I read was really interesting, and I am writing the same extract that I read. NOTE: This extract is being taken by the book “Essentials of Organizational Behavior – 10th Edition by Stephen P. Robbins, Timothy A. Judge and Seema Sanghi”

Personality Types
According to Jung's theory of Psychological Types we are all different in fundamental ways. One's ability to process different information is limited by their particular type. These types are sixteen. 

People can be either Extroverts or Introverts, depending on the direction of their activity; Thinking, Feeling, Sensing, Intuitive, according to their own information pathways; Judging or Perceiving, depending on the method in which they process received information. 

Extroverts vs. Introverts 

Extroverts are directed towards the objective world whereas Introverts are directed towards the subjective world. The most common differences between Extroverts and Introverts are shown below: 

Extroverts * are interested in what is happening around them * are open and often talkative * compare their own opinions with the opinions of others * like action and initiative * easily make new friends or adapt to a new group * say what they think * are interested in new people * easily break unwanted relationsExtravert Characteristics * Gregarious * Assertive * Talkative * Social/outgoing * Likes groups, parties, etc. * Energized by interaction * Expressive & enthusiastic * Volunteers personal information * Distractable * Has many friends * Easy to approach| Introverts * are interested in their own thoughts and feelings * need to have own territory * often appear reserved, quiet and thoughtful * usually do not have many friends * have difficulties in making new contacts * like concentration and quiet * do not like unexpected visits and therefore do not make them * work well aloneIntrovert Characteristics * Energized by time alone * Private * Keeps to self * Quiet * Deliberate * Internally aware * Fewer friends * Prefer smaller groups * Independent * Not socially inclined * Enjoys solitude * Thinks before speaking|

Sensing vs. Intuition 

Sensing is an ability to deal with information on the basis of its physical qualities and its affection by other information. Intuition is an ability to deal with the information on the basis of its hidden potential and its possible existence. The most common differences between Sensing and Intuitive types are shown below:  Sensing types * see everyone and sense everything * live in the here and now * quickly adapt to any situation * like pleasures based on physical sensation * are practical and active * are realistic and self-confident| Intuitive types * are mostly in the past or in the future * worry about the future more than the present * are interested in everything new and unusual * do not like routine * are attracted more to the theory than the practice * often have doubts|

Sensing CharacteristicsIntuitive Characteristics
* Concrete * Realistic * Lives in the present * Aware of surroundings * Notices details * Practical * Goes by senses * Factual| * Future-focused * Sees possibilities * Inventive * Imaginative * Deep * Abstract * Idealistic * Complicated * Theoretical|

Thinking vs. Feeling 

Thinking is an ability to deal with information on the basis of its structure and its function. Feeling is an ability to deal with information on the basis of its initial energetic condition and its interactions. The most common differences between Thinking and Feeling type are shown below: 

Thinking types * are interested in systems, structures, patterns * expose everything to logical analysis * are relatively cold and unemotional * evaluate things by intellect and right or wrong * have difficulties talking about feelings * do not like to clear up arguments or quarrels| Feeling types * are interested in people and their feelings * easily pass their own moods to others * pay great attention to love and passion * evaluate things by ethics and good or bad * can be touchy or use emotional manipulation * often give compliments to please people|

Thinking Characteristics * Logical * Objective * Decides with head * Wants truth * Rational * Impersonal * Critical * Thick-skinned * Firm with people * Driven by thought| Feeling Characteristics * Decides with heart * Dislikes conflict * Passionate * Driven by emotion * Gentle * Easily hurt * Empathetic * Caring of others * Warm|

Perceiving vs. Judging 

Perceiving types are motivated into activity by the changes in a situation. Judging types are motivated into activity by their decisions resulting from the changes in a situation. The most common differences between Perceiving and Judging types are shown below: 

Perceiving types * act impulsively following the situation * can start many things at once without finishing them properly * prefer to have freedom from obligations * are curious and like a fresh look at things * work productivity depends on their mood * often act without any preparation Judging Characteristics * Decisive * Controlled * Good at finishing * Organized * Structured * Scheduled * Quick at tasks * Responsible * Likes closure * Makes plans| Perceiving Characteristics * Adaptable * Relaxed * Disorganized * Care-free * Spontaneous * Changes tracks midway * Keeps options open * Procrastinates * Dislikes routine * Flexible|

| Judging types * do not like to leave unanswered questions * plan work ahead and tend to finish it * do not like to change their decisions * have relatively stable workability * easily follow rules and discipline|

These four opposite pairs of preferences define eight different ways of dealing with information, which in turn result in sixteen Psychological Types: 

ESTJ - The Mark Of A LeaderESTJ Summary: ESTJ: decisive, organized, digs in and get the job doneESTJs allow practical matters to guide them in making decisions and taking action. They observe what is happening around them and collect information based upon the matters at hand. They show an instinctive ability to lead others during situations in which information is readily available. While ESTJs make decisions based upon external information, the sensations they experience come from within. Often, their feelings are generated as a product of closely held memories about people and events. Below, we'll describe the importance that ESTJs place on logic and pragmatism. We'll also explain their fondness for things that are familiar as well as potential pitfalls that can ensnare them.Logic Takes PrecedenceFor ESTJs, nothing is as important as practicality. Their strongest attribute demands that the world they experience provides useful, relevant information on which they can base logical decisions. ESTJs are more comfortable studying numbers on a report than trying to intuit outcomes based upon feelings. And they're predisposed toward acting on the information in front of them. ESTJs make excellent leaders based upon their innate capacity to confidently make important decisions.| | ESFJ - The Traditional Giver

ESFJ types have an innate drive to care for others. They are particularly motivated by their interactions with the people in their lives. They're predisposed to making themselves available in a supportive capacity during times of grief, joy, hardship, or celebration. Their pragmatism leads them to judge circumstances based upon practicality and they are averse to spending time pontificating about theory. ESFJs have an enormous capacity for caring about the well-being of others. But, their natural partiality to supporting people is often at odds with their constantly morphing value system. Below, we'll explain how people with the ESFJ personality type thrive with an intense sensitivity. We'll also describe their unique value system and how their giving nature often leads to discouragement. Heightened Sensitivity

ESFJs are keenly focused upon helping others reach their individual potential. Their sensitivity is more sharply defined than other types. As a result, they can read people and intuitively understand their emotions, perspectives, and concerns. They believe that every person is capable of greatness if only they have the necessary support structure (which ESFJs are happy to provide). Their instinctive warmth and energy blends with a natural talent for encouraging others to excel in whatever they choose to do. Their relentless devotion to other people makes them highly valued friends and family members

ENTJ - Leading With Confidence
ENTJ personality types are born to lead. More than most other personalities, they have the drive, mental acuity, and focus to analyze situations, see the broader picture, and devise creative solutions. They do well in the corporate world, attracted by complex issues. And they tend to rise quickly through the ranks to assume positions and responsibilities that constantly put their natural traits to the test. When placed in an environment that challenges them properly and offers the opportunity to assume a leadership role, ENTJs are often indefatigable. Below, we'll describe their natural ability to lead and make decisions. We'll also explain how their best traits can potentially lead to problems. Natural Leaders

While some types shun a leadership role, people with the ENTJs type chase it. They are drawn to the challenge of approaching a problem, producing a solution, and directing a team to implement that solution. They're able to make decisions quickly without faltering on the uncertainty that other people feel. This trait encourages others to gravitate toward ENTJs, willing to be directed. ENFJ - The Charismatic Charmer

People with the ENFJ personality type are most comfortable when interacting with people. Communicating with others in a manner that stimulates a connecton energizes them. They have a refined intuition about others and leverage that intuition through persuasion, collaboration, and building consensus. ENFJ types have a powerful communicative ability to inspire the people around them, eliciting the response that is most likely to yield the results they want. They eschew theory and avoid analytical situations that are devoid of interaction with people. Below, we'll describe ENFJs' unique grasp of interpersonal skills and their natural fondness for exploring life's exciting possibilities. We'll also explain how a few of their tendencies can lead to significant challenges in their life. Interpersonal Mastery

While several personality types are skilled, and even adept, at establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships, the instincts of ENFJs make them natural masters of the craft. They are sharply focused on other people and have a baffling ability to anticipate the desires and needs of those around them. They are inherently interested in helping others achieve their potential, even if those people don't share the same enthusiasm. ISTJ - The Methodical Inspector

People with the ISTJ personality type are instinctively drawn toward tradition. The predictability of people and processes invigorate them and allow them to reach their own potential. They have an inherent sense of duty that is virtually unshakable, making them relentlessly (continuous) dependable. When they're working toward a goal that is consistent with their beliefs and obligations, ISTJs are tireless. They prefer to rely upon facts instead of abstraction (imagination) or theoretical meanderings, and are known to be effective executors. Below, we'll describe their innate sense of duty and appreciation of facts. We'll also explain a few of their characteristic limitations. A Sense Of Duty

ISTJ types have a natural sense of obligation. When given tasks, they usually assume a high level of personal ownership on the road to fulfilling them. Their dependability is prized by many and often results in ISTJs having more work placed on their shoulders. Consistent with their sense of duty, they also maintain their integrity regardless of the cost. As long as they accept a goal, belief, or process as worthwhile, they will devote themselves to helping promote it. And they'll do so under any deadline that is imposed upon them. ISFJ - The Unappreciated Servant

ISFJ types are most satisfied when helping others achieve their goals. They are quintessential (Special ) nurturers, fundamentally in tune with the thoughts, feelings, and emotions of those around them. They have an uncanny (supernatural wonder ) ability to absorb interpersonal information and remember it over long periods. Their recall is usually flawless and they can remember small details and nuances from personal interactions that are long forgotten - or were never noticed in the first place - by others. ISFJs exhibit a kind-hearted compassion for those around them, even people whom they don't know well. And their tendency to assume responsibility for tasks makes them utterly dependable. Below, we'll describe the innate compassion that ISFJs have as well as their steadfast reliability. We'll also explain why these traits can pose a potential problem for them throughout their lives. Associative Compassion

ISFJ personality types are sensitive to the emotions of others. They can intuit anger, frustration, grief, and other feelings, and will often dedicate themselves to helping people overcome them. ISFJs tend to build associations between the interactions they have with people during their lives. For them, these associations add to a constantly growing storehouse of interpersonal knowledge that they can tap as a resource when serving others. ISFJs are partially driven to nurture the people around them because they tend to believe that there is intrinsic value within every person. INTJ - The Thoughtful Scientist

People with the INTJ personality type have an enormous capacity for creativity. They can produce ideas about the world around them, making associations among dynamics that most other personality types miss. While others are confused by abstract ideas and new concepts, INTJs have a unique intuition that allows them to understand new ideas and conceptualize their results easily. They relate to the outside world thoughtfully, yet show little compulsion for thinking without action. Instead, INTJs prefer to take action to settle matters before moving on to other pursuits. Below, we'll explore their penchant for theory, fondness for applying their ideas, and a few inherent limitations. Appreciation For Theory

Ideas come easily to INTJs. Not only do they understand unfamiliar concepts quickly, but they tend to form their own creative ideas and solutions to problems. This tendency is consistent with this type's appreciation for theory. In effect, while others around them may observe a problem and struggle to produce a potential solution, INTJs will often devise several possible resolutions. In fact, they will frequently eschew the obvious and simple solution for one that is more complex or even paradoxical. INFJ - Protecting The Defenseless

INFJ types are natural defenders of those who cannot defend themselves. They instinctively - and often, without realizing it - gravitate toward situations in which others are being taken advantage of. They enjoy an advanced awareness about situations that go unnoticed by other types. And they can systematically formulate a plan of action to complete projects in the most efficient way possible. INFJs have an highly-developed intuition about the world around them. They can easily see past the obvious to explore the more subtle, usually unspoken dynamics that yield the most accurate perspectives. Below, we'll describe how people with INFJ personality types' intuitive nature leads to them to suspicion and why they are unerringly self-confident in their own abilities. Plus, we'll explain how these traits can limit their success. Intuitive And Suspicious

Because of their refined intuition, INFJ personalities harbor an inherent suspicion about the people in their world. While they exhibit a generous affability amongst those they know well, they're innately apprehensive around new people. As such, they select their friends carefully, after significant time spent observing them and interacting with them. That said, once INFJs befriend a person, the bond is typically long-lasting and the connection is a deep one. ESTP - The Impulsive Competitor

ESTPs are one of the most spontaneous types and are simultaneously exciting and challenging to be around. They have a natural exuberance and find great joy in immersing themselves into situations that pose a level of risk. They tend to shun theory and prefer the frenetic pace of non-stop action. ESTPs display an energetic nature that can inspire others and encourage their participation. They are also willing competitors who find fulfillment in the mere act of besting their opponents. Below, we'll take a closer look at their competitive nature and partiality for living in the moment. Plus, we'll describe a few aspects of their nature that can hamper their success. In Search Of Victory

People with the ESTP personality type are driven by a sense of competition. They are drawn toward games of skill that offer an opportunity to defeat others. Their inherent charisma can take some by surprise, especially because ESTPs have a highly-refined ability to intuit others' emotions and motivations. This, coupled with their tendency to circumvent traditional rules of civility in order to achieve their goals, makes them formidable strategists. That said, they often have a deeply-held sense of personal integrity that they will not violate. ESFP - The Life Of The Party

ESFP Summary: enthusiastic, accepting, always where the action is ESFPs are known for their indiscriminate affection for people and their dynamic personalities. They're instantly drawn to others and can easily inject themselves into conversations with strangers. Of the 16 personality types, they are the most likely to make friends quickly; in the process, they become a source of encouragement and motivation for others. ESFP's also have a capacity for enjoying the world around them that escapes most people. They sense, feel and perceive things that go unnoticed by others. And as they enjoy the experiences of life, ESFPs seem to pave the way for those around them to enjoy their own experiences more fully. Below, we'll describe the charisma of ESFPs, how they perceive the world and a few of their inherent weaknesses. The Ability To Inspire

The most prevalent attribute of ESFPs is their natural charisma. It emerges innately. When they're exposed to other people, this charisma emanates from them, making others feel better in their company. ESFPs are quick to encourage and motivate other people, inspiring them to accomplish tasks that may otherwise seem insurmountable. As a result, they're well-liked by others and are often asked to join or contribute to team efforts. ENTP - The Amiable Dreamer

People with the ENTP personality type are unique in their ability to identify associations between anything, no matter how seemingly disparate those things are. They are at once analytical and clever, taking great pleasure in verbal jousting. This makes them formidable debaters and they're often prone to switching sides of an issue for the sport of it. While many people profess to be able to multi-task various ideas, concepts, and assignments, few are more adept at doing so than ENTPs. They also find joy in provocative conversations with others and often have a sense of humor that some may consider slightly aberrant. Below, we'll explore their tendency to prioritize people above all else. We'll also describe why ENTP types' thinking process is distinctive to their type and how their overall nature can impact their lives. Putting People First

ENTP types are skilled at many things. However, they will set most priorities aside when given an opportunity to interact with other people. They have an extroverted personality that draws others to them. This, combined with an intrinsic capacity to understand the motives and feelings of others, makes them exciting to be around. They enjoy conversation for the simple pleasure of participating, yet also relish the chance to debate or argue a point. Their natural intuition allows them to quickly grasp issues and talk fluently about them almost immediately. ENTPs enjoy the company of others and will sacrifice much to have it. ENFP - The Torch Of Inspiration

ENFP Summary: enthusiastic, initiating, anticipates the needs of others ENFPs focus most of their attention on what happens around them. That is, they internalize very little and instead, experience life by perceiving and studying relationships between people, animals, nature and structures. ENFPs can inspire people both through their natural curiosity and their energetic approach to problems and team projects. They are most comfortable when in the company of others and have the ability to quickly make connections with other people. Below, we'll explain how ENFPs enjoy an innate faculty for intuition, their penchant for feeling and how their lives are often buffeted by the very traits others admire. Making The Connection

The attribute that is most clearly defined in ENFPs is their ability to observe the world in their immediate experience and identify connections. They can recognize elements that seem completely unrelated and develop relationships between them. While others may retire an unresolved problem, ENFPs will create imaginative solutions that may seem odd to other people. This is largely due to their intuition and capacity for noticing patterns. Because of their intuition, ENFPs are easily drawn toward relationships with people. And their natural passion for life tends to excite those who are around them. ISTP - The Practical Analyst

People with ISTP personality types are intensely analytical. This is due, in part, to their natural attraction to learning how the world around them works. They can disassemble problems and puzzles, reconstructing them in their mind to produce practical solutions. Their penchant for logic and understanding blends seamlessly with an intuitive capacity for reasoning. ISTPs are especially effective when working alone. They are better able to process data, review circumstances, and form pragmatic solutions when they're working independently. Below, we'll explain how ISTP types are drawn to action and need personal space to reach their potential. You'll also learn how their best traits can potentially sabotage them. Action And Application

While ISTPs can comfortably participate in theoretical conversations, they see little value in doing so if no action is taken as a result. They are prone to always being busy, as the constant activity invigorates them and gives them satisfaction. If presented with a problem, they will devote themselves to deconstructing the issue in order to analyze it. They have a keen sense of technical details and can understand complex issues quickly. Once they formulate a reasonable plan of action, ISTPs will pursue its implementation with the same fervor as their analysis. ISFP - Appreciating Life From Within

The ISFP personality can seem aloof due to their quiet nature. However, they are one of the most caring of personality types. When they first meet people, they may have difficulty in establishing quick bonds. To some, ISFPs can seem slightly eccentric in their pursuits and motivations. In truth, they are often simply following an internal set of ideals, generated from within and kept private from others. Many ISFPs are driven by what they sense around them, often at the cost of sacrificing what other people may consider pragmatic. When people get to know them, they're usually well-liked as they exude an uncommon level of compassion and empathy for people. Below, we'll explore how ISFPs keep their feelings inside, are unusually susceptible to sensation and the limitations they cope with. Containing Feelings

The ISFP type is private nearly to a fault. They have a tendency to avoid sharing their ideas and thoughts with others. Most people consider them to be composed, even in circumstances that imply a confrontation. In fact, ISFPs rarely express themselves through anger. They feel everything from within and can be sensitive to what others say or do. They seldom speak with strangers because they're reserved; that quality can make them seem standoffish and even unapproachable, despite their innately caring personality. ISFP personality types are apt to develop a strong set of values based upon their feelings. While they won't typically communicate these values, their actions are usually consistent with them. INTP - The Thirst For Knowledge

People with the INTP personality type love knowledge and logic above all else. Their intuition is naturally refined and accords them an unusual level of creative problem-solving ability. In fact, this type looks forward to complex problems, considering them a challenge. Their analytical skills combine with their penchant to filter every circumstance through logic to yield solutions that others may find counterintuitive. In truth, INTP types have a well-honed aptitude for identifying relevant patterns and applying them to theoretical puzzles to produce unique answers. Below, we'll explain INTPs' relentless pursuit of clarity, their preference for theory over application, and a few potential weaknesses which can hold them back. Finding An Explanation

For people with the INTP type, a situation that lacks a clearly defined explanation is infuriating. They take great pleasure in attacking problems that are complex and transforming them into easily understood puzzles. Every problem represents an opportunity for them to build their store of knowledge. In so doing, INTPs continuously generate potential resolutions for problems based upon objective reasoning. When left to their own devices, they will appear distant as they mull things over in their mind, applying answers to problems, even when unnecessary. People with the INFP personality type view the world around them through a tightly focused, optimistic lens that filters the unsavory details. They are extreme optimists, even in the face of circumstances that betray that optimism. They are instinctively driven toward serving causes that they consider worthwhile and will tenaciously pursue opportunities to contribute toward the improvement of their world. INFPs have a natural inclination toward untainted idealism and view every situation as a potential doorway to contribute value. Below, we'll describe how INFP types relish the chance to participate toward the advancement of causes they deem meaningful. Plus, we'll explain the motivations behind their intense focus and how a few of their attributes can limit their professional and personal growth. Serving The Cause

Nothing stimulates action from INFPs as effectively as presenting them with a worthwhile cause. As long as it is consistent with their deeply-ingrained value system, they will dedicated their energy to advancing it, even at the exclusion of their own goals. INFPs exhibit an innate aversion to facts, figures, and other data, preferring to devote themselves to lofty principles and ideals. When given a project in which the expected outcome is congruent with their own beliefs, they will work tirelessly to complete it with a determination and enthusiasm that borders on fanatical.

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