Psychology 100 Final Study Guide

Topics: Psychology, Emotion, Social psychology Pages: 18 (2857 words) Published: April 26, 2015
Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Potential Problems relying on intuition and common sense
Hindsight bias: tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that you knew the answer all along Overconfidence: we think we know more than we do
Perception of patterns in random events: man on the moon
Scientific Attitude: curiosity, skepticism, and humility
The Scientific Method
Observing & Describing Behavior
Naturalistic observations: observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation Overt observing: participants know they are being watched

Covert observation: unaware they were being observed
Participant observer: researcher implants themselves into situation Non-participant observer: just watching
Chapter 2: Biology of Mind
Sensory neurons: sight, sound
Motor neurons: connected to glands and muscles
Interneurons: relaying messages within the nervous system
Neurons DO NOT touch one another
Nerves: bundles of axons that form “cables” and connect the CNS with muscles, glands, and sense organs. Dopamine: morphine you produce in your own body
Agonist: can mimic function of neurotransmitter
Antagonist: similar enough to fit in sight not similar enough to engage in function Nervous System (should know diagram pg. 56 figure 2.7)
The Brain
Brainstem: oldest and innermost brain region
Cerebellum: nonverbal learning and memory, time management, emotion regulation, sound and texture discrimination, voluntary movement Limbic system: sits between the brain’s older parts and its cerebral hemispheres. Hypothalamus

Pituitary gland
Left vs Right
Left: logic
Right: creative
Chapter 3: Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind
Consciousness and unconsciousness of yourself and the environment around you Dual processing: we evaluate our environment both consciously and unconsciously see a bird and you notice the color, motion, form, etc. but you say “what a pretty bird” unconscious: works in parallel

multiple things happening all at once
conscious: sequential and deliberate
this happened.. then that .. so on..
Selective Attention
Cocktail party effect: hearing your name across the room when you’re talking with someone else Inattentional blindness: so focused on something that you don’t notice something strange that is happening Change blindness: person swap and not noticing

Sleep Stages
90-minute cycles during sleep
REM: slow breathing, irregular brain waves
NREM 1: hallucinations
NREM 2: sleep spindles
NREM 3: delta waves
Young adults: 4-5 cycles, older adults: wake up often
Why is it that we need sleep? (sleep for 1/3 of our life)
Protection, recuperation, consolidate memories, creativity, growth Dreams
We dream to satisfy wishes, file away memories, to develop and preserve neural pathways, to make sense of neural static, and to reflect cognitive development/maturation Chapter 5: Development Through the Lifespan

Nature vs. Nurture: influenced by environment
Continuity and stages: continually growing if you are easy going now you will continue to be easy going Stability and change:
From womb to tomb
Prenatal Development and the Newborn
Zygote, embryo, fetus
Infancy & Childhood
Infantile amnesia: not remembering much before 3rd birthday
Cognition: mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Assimilation: interpreting new ideas in terms of existing schemas Accommodation: adapting current schemas to incorporate new info Stranger anxiety: begins at about 8 months of age

Critical period: period in early life when exposure to certain things leads to normal development Imprinting (like baby ducks with owners at UD)
Authoritarian: parents impose rules and expect obedience
go to bed at 8:00 no matter what
Permissive: parents submit to child’s desires
Authoritative: parents are demanding and responsive
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