Everyone has exposure to some type of testing. A test is a procedure to measures an individual’s traits, abilities, or performance through an examination, interview, or observation. In psychology, many evaluators use the numerous test available for a collection of reasons, but these tests must demonstrate reliability and validity.
Mental Ability Tests
There are five major categories of tests, including mental ability tests, achievement test, objective personality tests, interests and attitudes, and neuropsychological tests (Hogan, 2007). Mental ability tests are designed to assess cognitive function, such as memory, reasoning, and vocabulary (Hogan, 2007). These abilities and functions can be tested individually or combined in an overall mental ability test. Tests also are designed to be administered individually and in a group. A psychologist can use tests, such as the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, to individual clients, and the Scholastic Assessment Test in a group to determine mental ability.
Another category of testing is achievement tests. These commonly applied tests are used to determine an individual’s knowledge or proficiency in a particular field. Achievement batteries are performed by teachers daily to measure knowledge in a specific subject, such as a chapter test in history. Other standardized achievement tests are performed in education, such as the Standford Achievement Test (Hogan, 2007). These assessments are a series of tests covering multiple subjects such as reading, science, and math, whereas other assessments, such as the Graduate Record Examinations, are designed to test one subject (Hogan, 2007). Achievement tests also include testing for a specific occupation, such as an electrician or lawyer or are used by government agencies, such as the state academic testing required for high school graduation in Arizona. Individual achievement tests can assist in the diagnosis of learning