UNIT 8-Psychological Perspectives
This assignment will explain three different psychological perspectives and these are: Behaviourism, psychodynamic and social learning. In this assignment this will include the main theorists and apply how and why they work. (P1): Explain the principal of psychological perspectives.
Behaviourism can also be seen as the learning theory. This was introduced by John Watson in the early 1900’s. This was mainly his thoughts and ideas. When it comes to behaviourism there are three assumptions that are attached and are developed within behaviourism. These are; behaviour is learnt and also humans and animals learn the same way, this can be seen that the mind is irrelevant. Behaviourists would conclude that a person would behave in some way would be because they learnt it. An individual’s actions would also be seen as them learning it at some point in their life and that’s the reason why we can repeat and copy these types of actions that could come up in later stages of an individual life. In this psychological approach there are two theorists that I will be discussing about and there are, Ivan Pavlov and Burhuss Frederic Skinner. (Source: Rasheed, E, 2010)
Skinner developed the Operant conditioning. Skinner mainly studied how learning could influence our behaviour. In order for him to prove his point, he conducted an experiment where he used rats and a box (Skinner box). Inside the box contained a lever. All Skinner was focused on was to change the behaviour of the rat. He done this by pressing the lever and it would release food for the rat inside. He was successful in his experiment because as time went by the rats learnt by reinforcing, because the rats because responsive as the lever was open upon them. The releasing of food is called reinforcement. This is because it is something the rat would like therefore the rat responded to that and also the fact that this was repeated so it also increased the reinforcement. There are two types of reinforcement; negative and positive reinforcement and Skinner used both of these during his experiment. (Source: Davenport, G, 1995)
Positive reinforcement is when the behaviour is considered good, for example; when Skinner released the pellets each time the rat pressed the lever. Negative reinforcement is when the behaviour learnt ends up removing something unlikeable. For example Skinner done this by running electrical current through the box in which the rat was in and this was only de-activitated when the lever was pressed. (Source: Davenport, G, 1995)
Pavlov on the other hand, developed the theory of classical conditioning. Pavlov believed that we learn through our environment and also through natural stimuli. In Pavlov’s experiment he mainly carried it out on dogs based on food and their levels of salivation. His experiment was successful because at the end the dogs began to salivate even before tasting the food because they became associated with the laboratory assistant with food and so they became used to that and each time that they saw the lab assistant they just salivate. Pavlov described this as unconditioned response because the salivation is not learnt and the food was the unconditioned stimulus because it caused the dogs to salivate. Pavlov later on wanted the dogs to copy the response from the unconditioned stimulus. He did this by pairing it to neutral stimulus. With this experiment He used a bell which rang every time food was given to the dogs. This experiment worked because later Pavlov found out that the dogs were associating the bell with the food just like they did with the laboratory assistant. In this case the bell was the conditioned stimulus because the dogs learnt that and the salivation is called a conditioned response. (Source: Davenport, G, 1995)
Social learning is psychological perspective that is believed that we learn from things around us on a daily basis and society. This theory...
Davenport, G, (1995). Essential Psychology, London: Collins Educational
Eysenck, M (2000). Psychology, East Sussex: Psychology Press
Neil Martin G et al. (2007). Psychology, Edinburgh: Pearson Education Limited
Rasheed, E (2010). Health & Social Care, Norfolk: Edexcel
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