The 16PF® Questionnaire and Adjustment
Scott Bedwell, Ph.D. Caroline Fris Sarah Moore
The 16PF Questionnaire has a long and rich research history, both supporting its psychometric integrity and linking personality scores to important processes and outcomes. Scores on the 16PF Questionnaire have also been shown to underlie an individual’s psychological adjustment. The research supporting these results is well documented in articles, book chapters and questionnaire manuals. However, beyond the initial research, experience provides us with a context in which to more fully understand the implications and meanings derived from the linkages between the 16PF and psychological adjustment. This paper is an interpretive guide intended to supplement the research results presented in the 16PF manual. 16PF users who are interested in the details of the research supporting the links between the 16PF results and adjustment are strongly encouraged to read Chapter 7 of the 16PF Fifth Edition Technical Manual or Chapter 12 of the 16PF Fifth Edition Manual (IPAT, 2009). Psychological adjustment has been described in many ways, from life satisfaction, positive emotions and wellbeing to successful adaptation to life (Ryff, 1989). As a multifaceted concept, it is understandable that both psychologists and non-psychologists may be referring to different outcomes when they use the term adjustment. Research with the 16PF Questionnaire has examined two points of focus for psychological adjustment: • Emotional adjustment refers to predominately experiencing positive emotions, with few ups and downs in mood. Social adjustment refers to adapting to social demands in a proactive manner.
As Ryff (1989) and Flanagan (1978) observed, there are both self-oriented and other-oriented aspects of psychological adjustment. These observations correspond to the concepts of emotional adjustment and social adjustment. In addition to the traits described above, which are common across facets of...
References: Flanagan, J.C. (1978). A research approach to improving our quality of life. American Psychologist, 33, 138-147. Ryff, C.D. (1989). In the eye of beholder: Views of psychological well-being among middle-aged and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 4, 195-210. © Copyright 2010 IPAT, Inc. ®16PF is a registered trademark of the Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Inc. (IPAT) in the USA, the European Community and other countries. IPAT is a wholly owned subsidiary of OPP® Ltd. ® OPP is a registered trademark of OPP.
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