Task 1: Psychodynamic approach
P1 – Explain the principle psychological perspectives.
M1 – Assess different psychological approaches to study.
Sigmund Freud developed an approach which was the first psychological approach that elucidated behaviour. Freud discovered the psychoanalysis, which is a technique for curing mental illness and also a theory which explains human behaviour. Psychoanalysis is recognised as the talking cure. Normally, Freud would inspire his patients to talk freely (on his famous couch) concerning their symptoms and to explain precisely what was on their mind. He also states ‘The iceberg which has 3 levels known as the conscious mind, preconscious and unconscious mind. Freud compared himself to an archaeologist digging away layers of the human mind, and found three discrete parts of the mind. He was the earliest philosophers to get public awareness the concept that we are not conscious of all our features all the time. He proposed that what we are conscious of is represented on our conscious mind but that most of our memories, feelings and mind he named as ‘unconscious’. We don’t have access to the contents of our unconscious, but they occasionally ‘leak out’ in dreams and slips of the tongue. Freud’s first elucidated behaviour by his iceberg analogy. He suggested that the conscious mind was like the tip of an iceberg –merely a small part being accessible to consciousness. Part of the unconscious that we can easily access he named it the preconscious.
This can be used in health and social care as health carers can identify what is happening in the client’s conscious mind and identify any faults there might be such as depression and schizophrenia and possibly phobias.
Sigmund Freud proposed that we have inborn drives that stimulates our conducts in the form of the mind. These are known as the ego, superego and the id. The id occurs at birth and is the base of our unconscious inclination. It works on the gratification concept to get instant pleasure, so it prevents pain and therefore it is very egocentric. The id is the origin of a supernatural known as Libido. The superego develops throughout the age of five years and entails principles and values. It is the child’s ego and moral sense which constructs the paragon of what the child wishes to be. Our ego is developed throughout our childhood and it enables the child to learn that getting instant gratification is not always feasible and that a lot of the time pain cannot be prevented The ego operates on the actuality principle because it decides what actions are most convenient and what to avoid from the id. It also tries to balance the requirements of the id and superego with the actuality of life so we can do what normal individuals do by using the defence mechanisms.
Depending on Sigmund our defence mechanisms are used in order to manage unconscious dispute amongst ego, superego and id. These disputes might be unconscious or conscious and the defence mechanisms work in an unconscious manner to wards of any disagreeable feelings and make things better for the person. There are four key defence systems that are used by the ego. An example is displacement. Displacement is when people’s emotional state towards the actual goal cannot be expressed and where accepting faults cause concern and worry that causes moods to be interchanged on to other objects. For instance an individual blaming their parents for their performance as of them not raising them properly instead of blaming their self. Denial is another ego defence mechanism that is where someone cannot accept a specific truth. Individuals might object to believe occurrence or acknowledge emotions as of worry and concern, thus specific awareness is not dealt with. For instance, someone who is unwell might reject to believe this. Repression is another well-known defence mechanism. Repression acts to keep information out of conscious recognition. Though, these memories don't...
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