1. Psychoanalytical Criticism
2. Psychoanalytical criticism is a type ofcriticism that uses theories of psychology to analyze literature. It focuses on theauthor’s state of mind or the state of the mind of fictional characters. 3. Sigmund FreudPsychoanalytical criticism originated in the workof Sigmund Freud. Freud’s theories areconcerned with the nature of the unconsciousmind. According to Freud, the human mindconsists of three parts: the id, the ego andsuperego. The id is source of our instinctual and physical desires. The superego is the part of the psyche that has internalized the norms and mores of society. The ego is keeps mediating between the demands of the id and the superego. It is rational, logical, and conscious. 4. Repression We often repress what the id encourages us to think and do because the ego and superego tell us not to think and do, therefore forcing these unacceptable wishes into the unconscious. All of us have repressed wishes and fears. Repressed desires emerge in disguised forms: dreams and language (slips). They emerge in symbolic form that require analysis to reveal their meaning. Many elements of psychology that Freud described appear in literary works. 5. Freudian Literary Criticism Freudian critics try to understand how the operations of repression structure or inform the work? They pay close attention to unconscious motives and feelings, whether these be those of the author, or of the characters depicted in the work. They demonstrate the presence in the literary work of classic psychoanalytic symptoms or conditions. 6. Carl Gustav Jung and Jungian literary Criticism Jung developed the theory of the collective unconscious, a collection of shared unconscious memories dating back to the origins of human experience and manifested in dreams, myths, and literature. A great work of literature is not a disguised expression of repressed wishes, but a manifestation of the desires one held by the whole human race, and now...
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