Ethology & Human development
The study of evolutionary behaviors
Infants have a number of behaviors that are biologically programmed that serve the purpose of bringing adults close to them and caring for them – infants cry as a distress signal Infants physical appearance also develops from natural selection Sensitive periods: period of time when it is most optimal to see a behavior, or develop a relationship. He argued that the first 3 years are a sensitive period for the development of social attachments Mating preferences: men and woman tend to have different strategies when it comes to mating practices. Males: more, younger, and attractive. Females: fewer(selective with eggs), powerful, and mature.
Scarr and McCartney – argued that our genes determine the kind of environment we are exposed to and the way that environment will interact: Passive- imitation
Evocative- our own traits invoke the environments responses. Kids who are physically attractive are likely to evoke a more favorable environment Active- the child themselves chooses the environment they are within. They actively choose to focus on an environment that is consistent with their own skills. Athletes- athletic environment Siblings should be more similar as they are younger and as they are older they should become more different because they invoke different responses from their environments.
Ecological Systems theory
Bronfenbrenner: argued that as kids developed they are embedded in a series of social contexts. Those contexts influence one another, and the child. The contexts are complicated and intertwined. Social period you are in may have a particular influence as well. The micro-system: variables and contexts that surround the child, that they interact with, and that influence the child. Meso-system: the ways the microsystem may be related. Eg. Families influence schools, schools influence family. Peers influence families. A series of relationships/interactions between the microsystem variables. Exo-system: variables that influence the child but do not interact with. Macro-system: the culture in which the family exists. Political system, financial system, social class Chrono-system: time related element. Puberty. Happens at a particular time, shapes social relationships. Can also be historical events – great depression/911. Shaped how we now do business.
Socio-cultural theory (Vygotsky)
-Development takes place in a certain social/cultural context development is largely influence by the culture or the social context. Skills we develop largely develop our culture by the social contexts in which a child lives. Political values, social values.
Social interaction is highly important
Culture determines the form in which development will take place Our development is determined by social interaction – taught by someone older or more able
We’re born with a number of elementary mental functions such as perception or sensation. These functions are transformed into higher mental functions by the characteristics of the culture in which we are raised. They transform by the tools necessary for intellectual adaptation within a culture
Collaborative learning: children learn from interacting with other people; through collaborating with someone who is more able than they are. Typically parents, older siblings, professionals, as well as peers. Zone of proximal development : children will learn and get the point of mastering a skill but will not go over the top without instruction from someone with more skill to move to the next level. Scaffolding : when a teacher tailors his or her teaching so it exactly meets the level of need for the learner Private speech: When a child is learning a new task they talk to themselves and instruct themselves in the steps to complete the task.
Chapter 3 – prenatal development
Conception – the first development;...
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