PSY 410 Week 3 Neurocognitive and Neurodevelopmental Paper

Topics: Dopamine, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Neurology Pages: 7 (1427 words) Published: March 3, 2015


Neurocognitive and Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Kimberly Hollis
PSY/410
February 3, 2015
Richard Reinsch

Neurocognitive and Neurodevelopmental Disorder
When it comes to neurocognitive disorders and neurodevelopmental disorders, reaserchers have been able to diagnose symptoms of a variety of disorders pertaining to the brain and growth development. Once knowing what the symptoms are behaviors become noticed and there becomes a reason for certain behaviors in individuals allowing different treatments for these disorders.. The movement to diagnose neurocognitive disorders upstream reflects on emerging literature that confirms both improvement in early diagnostic determinations and the recognition that the neuropathology underlying this disorder emerges well before the onset of clinical symptoms (Blazer, 2013). Neurocognitive disorders happen because changes in the brain structure occur. It is the internal changes that cause damage to the brain tissue, and others are caused by external influences that involve trauma experiences and any hard blows to the head that repeatedly happen. Neurocognitive disorders are known as psychological conditions. These changes in the brain can cause behavior to alter, mood swings, and changes in personality. Neurocognitive disorders cause loss of cognitive ability because of brain damage and the disease. Comprehending the brain areas that are affected by neurocognitive disorders involving personality change after brain damage, behaviors, and mood swings gives researchers a better grasp on understanding biological underpinnings of several issues in abnormal psychology. The second most common neurodegenerative disorder is Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease is found more in men than women. This disease is characterized by motor symptoms involving rigid movements and resting tremors. Loss of dopamine neurons in a certain area of the brain known as substantia nigra is the cause for rigid movements and resting tremors. An individual is unable to move in a controlled manner and fluid manner when neurons are lost. Over time in this illness cognitive insufficiency can become apparent. There are several symptoms in Parkinson’s disease that affect behaviors in individuals. The psychological symptoms dealing with Parkinson’s disease are anxiety, depression, apathy, cognitive issues, delusions, and hallucinations. The behavior criteria for Parkinson’s disease can cause an individual to become fearful and overwhelmed causing him or her to break out of a comfortable situation. Also, when anxiety hits, and individual can become angry, depressed, confused, lost, and can even shut down causing them to isolate themselves from others. Another symptom that individuals suffer from is depression. This is where an individual feels just worthless about themselves. Apathy is another symptom in Parkinson’s disease. This is where an individual just does not care anymore and develops an absence of emotions, excitement, and suppression of passion. Hallucinations and delusions are also symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Hallucinations involve seeing things that are not realistic, but believing that they are, meanwhile they are still able to distinguish that it is not real. When an individual becomes delusional, they are convinced that it is real and true. When having delusions an individual is not capable of making a distinction between what is realistic and what is unrealistic. Parkinson’s disease has an incidence rate of sixteen to nineteen per one hundred thousand a year making it a total of two million out of six million people that suffer with progressive neurological conditions. Parkinson’s disease can be cause by both genetic and environmental factors. When a parents or siblings are diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease his or her chances of developing this disease is four to nine percent higher. This makes his or her chances of developing Parkinson’s disease higher than the general population....

References: Blazer, D. (2013). Neurocognitive disorders in DSM-5. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(6), 585-7. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1368604136?accountid=458
Limousin, P., & Martinez-torres, I. (2008). Deep brain stimulation for parkinson 's disease. Neurotherapeutics, 5(2), 309-19. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nurt.2008.01.006
Dershewitz, R. A. (2002). More about prevalence of ADHD in children. NEJM Journal Watch.General Medicine, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/JW200204090000006
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