Psychological and Mental Disorders
August 4, 2013
Psychological and Mental Disorders
A psychological disorder or mental disorder is a pattern of psychological or behavioral symptoms that can and usually do impact various areas of the life and/or create distress of a person that experiences symptoms. Schizophrenia, Depression, Mania, Anxiety disorder, and Tourette syndrome are all types of these disorders. Schizophrenia, a psychotic disorder characterized by loss of contact with the environment, by noticeable deterioration in the level of functioning in everyday life, and by disintegration of personality expressed as disorder of feeling, thought (as delusions), perception (as hallucinations), and behavior —called also dementia praecox ("Schizophrenia," 2013). Contrary to some popular belief, schizophrenia isn't split personality or multiple personality. The word "schizophrenia" does mean "split mind," but it refers to a disruption of the usual balance of emotions and thinking. Usually with schizophrenia, the person's inner world and behavior change radically. Behavior changes might include the following: • Social withdrawal
• Depersonalization (a sense of being unreal, hazy and in a dreamlike state), sometimes accompanied by intense anxiety • Loss of appetite
• Loss of hygiene
• Hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that aren't there) • The sense of being controlled by outside forces
• Disorganized speech
A person with schizophrenia does not always have outward signs of being ill. In other cases, it can present in a more obvious way, causing bizarre behaviors. Patients may also experience relatively passive times during the illness in which they seem to lack personality, movement, and emotion (also called a flat affect). Schizophrenia treatment involves medications and therapy to reduce the risk of future psychotic episodes and improve the patient’s life. Treatments for schizophrenia include but not limited to antipsychotic medication like, chlorpromazine, haloperidol, perphenazine, and fluphenazide. Each of the medications have side effects that could include drowsiness, blurred vision, sensitivity to the sun, and skin rashes. It's not known what causes schizophrenia, however researchers feel that it is a combination of genetics and environmental issues that contribute to development of the disease. Imbalances with certain naturally occurring brain chemicals, such as neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate, also may have a link to schizophrenia. Neuro-imaging studies have shown the differences in the brain structure and central nervous system of people with schizophrenia. While researchers aren't positive what the significance of these changes are, they support strong evidence that schizophrenia is a brain disease. Depression is a mental illness, but it also can affect the body as well as the mind. Being unable to fall asleep or staying asleep can also be a symptom of depression. This symptom is common in people who are depressed. Others with depression may find that they sleep too much. Chest pains can be a sign of a heart or lung problem but can also be a sign of depression. There's also a link between depression and heart disease. Exhaustion or lack of energy for everyday tasks may also be a sign of depression. Often depression and fatigue feed off each other creating a vicious cycle. Living with chronic pain can also increase risks of depression. And in turn depression itself can lead to pain because the two conditions share chemical messengers in the brain. Stomach issues, changes in appetite, headaches, weight loss or gain, back pain. Depression can be divided into two categories, depression that is triggered by a negative experience or “reactive depression” and depression that has no apparent trigger or “endogenous depression”. One of the many treatments that is used to help with depression is...
References: Schizophrenia. (2013). In Dictionary and Thsaurus - Merriam-Webster. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com
Pinel, J. P. (2011). Biopsychology [University of Phoenix Custom Edition eBook]. : Allyn & Bacon. Retrieved from University of Phoenix, PSY 240 website.
WebMD. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/schizophrenia/schizophrenia-patient-education-center
Varcarolis RN MA, E. M., & Halter PhD PMHCNS, M. J. (2010). Foundations of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing: A Clinical Approach, 6e [ (6th ed.). : Saunders.
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