The neurons in the brain process information and these are the nervous system communication device. Neurons can be broken down into four structures. These are soma, the cell body which shields and protect the nucleus. Dendrite is the branch like mechanism that the neurons obtain information. Axon the long thin tube structure that take the information sent from the soma to the terminal buttons and the terminal buttons are small knob structure at the end of each branch of the axon. These buttons discharge neurotransmitters.
The forebrain is made up of the telencephalon and the diencephalon. The midbrain comprises of mesencephalon which is can be broken down into the tectum and the tegmentum. The hindbrain consists of the metencephalon which is broken down into the cerebellum, Pons, and myelencephalon which is made up of medulla oblongata.
The Telencephalon is at the largest part of the brain and is made up of the basil ganglia, the cerebral cortex, the olfactory bulb, and the corpus striatum. The functions of the telencephalon are: Initiating voluntary movement, determines intelligence, determines personality, interprets sensory impulses, facilitate complex cognitive processes such as learning, speaking and problem solving, sense of smell and sense of touch (Pinel 2011 Ch.3 p.66).
The Diencephalon sits between the cerebral hemispheres and is superior to the midbrain, which is made up of the thalamus and hypothalamus structures. The functions of the diencephalon include: Sensing impulses directed throughout the Body, Controlling autonomic functions, controlling endocrine functions, controlling motor functions, homeostasis, Hearing, Vision, Smell, and Taste and Touch
References: Pinel, J.P. (2011). Biopsychology eighth edition: Central Nervous System, by Pearson Education, Inc. Brain Health & Puzzles. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.brainhealthandpuzzles.com/brain_parts_function.html