Can Attention Affect the Stroop Word Task?
Latencies were recorded, in the context of a Stroop stimuli task. Within this study, subjects were given two stimuli slides and asked to recite color-words that were opposing the color they were printed in, as well as one slide being isolated, while the other slide was non-isolated. Slides without the isolated words concluded to have shorter latencies the slides that contained the isolated words. Subjects recited the words faster when it did not include the isolated words. These findings suggest that subjects given the color-words and asked to name the color of the print had a harder time naming them, than when given the transportation words and asked to name what color they were printed in.
Can Attention Affect the Stroop Word Task?
The Stroop Effect, along with attention disorders and problems that relate to it, have been studied and tested in many different situations. MacLeod (1991) concluded that the subject has to have motivation to have a successful latency on the Stroop Word Task to have a good speed of processing and reading the words on command. Attachment anxiety and attentional control play a significant role in the latencies of a subject, as well (Bailey, 2012). Emotional Stroop Task would be interfered, as the subject would feel a threat to the words or color words, which would reflect longer latencies. Kuper (2012) concludes that subjects will be slower naturally when reciting color words that name a different color than what they are. Another study was done to see whether the color word capture visual attention would affect the Stroop color-naming (Cho, 2012). Poor interference has been named an aspect of ADHD (Barkley, 1997; Reed, 2007) In this study, it was concluded that ADHD Stroop interference has the most minimal effect in childhood.
When using the Stroop Effect, usually the latency in seconds (the time it takes) is measured for a subject to recite the color of a number of stimuli, such as 45 words total with the color words being five different colors.
It has also been concluded not only normal Stroop stimuli color words are affected by attention. In one study, Roelofs (2011) states that subjects were given the color-word Stroop stimuli and their computer screen contained left- or right-pointing arrows on either side. The subject had to name the color and look to the arrow to manually obtain its direction. The color-word was taken off the screen 100 ms after the onset of the experiment. The study showed that this increased attentional demand in the subjects, as taking away the color-word decreases the irrelevant thoughts from being processed, therefore increases attentional demand. Method
Twenty volunteer subjects available at the time of testing were used for this study. Subjects that are colorblind or unable to see well were eliminated. Apparatus and Materials
Stimuli for the four different color-word test were prepared on four slides on Microsoft Powerpoint (Stimuli slides can be seen in Appendix A). Slides 1 and 4 contain color-words in five different alternating colors repeated multiple times. These slides contain the words: blue, black, red, green, and yellow in no specific order. These five words were colored in a color opposite from what the word states. All of the words were in the same font and the same size. Slides 2 and 3 contain Color-Words in five different alternating colors repeated multiple times. These slides contain the words: plane, train, trolley, car, and bike. These five words were colored in random colors that have nothing to do with the word. All of the words were of the same font and font size.
A stopwatch found on a cell phone or just a portable stopwatch was used to time the subjects as they name the color-words. The latencies were measured in seconds of the tasks. The stimulus slides...
References: Bailey, H. N., Paret, L., Battista, C., & Xue, Y. (2012). Attachment anxiety and attentional control predict immediate and delayed emotional stroop interference. . Emotion, 12(2), 376-383.
Kuper, K., & Heil, M. (2012). Attentional focus manipulations affect naming latencies of neutral but not of incongruent Stroop trials. Swiss journal of Psychology/Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Psychologie/Revue Suisse de Psychologie, 71(2), 93-100.
MacLeod, C. M. (1991). Half a century of research on the Stroop effect: An integrative review. Psychological Bulletin 109(2), 163-203. Doi:10.1037/0033-2909.109.2.163
Heijden, A. H. (1992). Selective Attention in Vision. New Fetter Lane: Routledge.
Cho, Y. S., Choi, J. M., & Proctor, R. W. (2012). Likelihood of attending to the color word modulates stroop interference. . Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 74(2), 416-429.
Reed, J., & Warner-Rogers, J. (2007). Child Neuropsychology: Concepts, Theory, and Practice. Malden, Maine: Blackwell Publishing.
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