The beliefs of John Calvin were much different. He supported the concept of secular piety and used this to create a link between the church and state. In cities such as Geneva, the French Huguenots and Calvinists believed in complete control of the state by the church. Calvinism also believed in a God that is completely sovereign, predestining some to salvation, the rest to hell, some to be kings, and the rest to be subjects, but all equal in submitting the absolute Law of God. Since those who were pure were predestined for heaven, it was pertinent that they should spread holiness through a combination of church and state.
The third religious Sect were the Anabaptists, who were a radical “left-wing” Sect outlawed by Catholics and other Protestant groups. They believed in the complete separation of church and state and as a very accepting and tolerant group, thought that the government should have no say in an individual’s religion. The Anabaptists created their own doctrine and separated them from most of the Catholic religion. They simplified church services, focused less on the sacraments and fought against infant-baptism, believing that an individual should only be baptized when he or she is old enough to understand the importance of it. The Anabaptists influenced the Quakers, and established a theocracy in Munster, where John of Leiden authorized practices such as polygamy and burned all books except the Bible. He was believed to be a threat to the existing political and social order and was later executed.
These three sects of Protestantism all inspired vast religious changes in Europe during the Reformation. Lutherans promoted obedience to government, Calvinists advocated church and state as a unified body, and Anabaptists believed in complete separation of the church and state.