Professor William Cook
European History 102
September 23, 2013
The Protestant Reformation
The protestant reformation was a religious and intellectual disturbance that broke up the Catholic Church in Europe in the 16th century. The reformation forced people to be catholic or protestant, an important choice that resulted in rather you lived or died. Martin Luther and John Calvin were two reformers who argued for religious ratification of power. “The Reformation.” 2013. The History Channel website
Martin Luther, the son of Han Luther a copper miner, was a monk and theologian who challenged Catholicism. When Luther wrote his “Ninety Five Theses” he was attaching the Catholic Church and their practice of selling indulges to set free the sins of those who purchased these indulges and the purchase of church offices. It is said that Martin Luther’s ‘Ninety Five Theses’ had two central beliefs. One belief being that the bible is the central religious authority and that humans can only reach salvation by their faith and not by their good deeds. Another belief was that Martin Luther wrote his “Ninety Five Theses” to start the protestant reformation. John Calvin the son of a notary went to the University Of Paris in 1523, where he earned his Masters of Arts in Theology. Calvin was another reformer who has challenged Catholic authority. Calvin traveled to Geneva to find his life’s work. Geneva was interested in reformation, so imposed social order and harsh discipline in Geneva. Calvin forced the citizens of Geneva to yield to his ideals of religion. Due to Calvin’s leadership, Geneva became a Christian republic, to set a model for Calvin’s book Institutes of Christian Religion. Following Martin Luther’s doctrine of salvation, Calvin developed the doctrine of Predestination. Arguing that god had or drained every man, woman, and child to salvation or damnation even before the creation of the world. Martin, Thomas R., Barbara H. Rosenwein, and Bonnie G. Smith. "14." Making of the West Peoples and Cultures: Since 1500. By Lynn Hunt. 14th ed. Vol. 2. N.p.: Bedford/st Martins, 2012. 460-64. Print.