proposal for relationship
Types of Gender Inequality--------------------------------------------------4
Facts About Gender Inequlaity---------------------------------------------8
The idea was about to show gender inequality through different aspects of people. To do a notch thinking about the topic. The documentary shows different views of what they think of gender inequality or equality. There are interviews that were conducted from different people from different background, races, genders, and status. We have conducted interviews of teachers, politicians general public, a barber, a corporate person and so on. Although the world has become so advanced but there are gender inequalities on high levels. Gender inequality is not just a problem in it slef, it is a major problem for the economy aswell. People still thinks women if start going out for work will get dominant and powerfull over man and if she goes ot, she becomes commercial, people look them with different perspectives. Though they forget, that women are to be respected and treated as she is supposed to and given all her rights.
Gender inequality refers to unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals based on their gender. It arises from differences in socially constructed gender roles as well as biologically through chromosomes, brain structure, and hormonal differences. Gender systems are often dichotomous and hierarchical; gender binary systems may reflect the inequalities that manifest in numerous dimensions of daily life. Gender inequality stems from distinctions, whether empirically grounded or socially constructed. On differences between the sexes. We will be looking into the following what causes inequality between women and men: how does it arise, why does it take different forms, why does it vary in degree across societies, what are the components that add up to gender inequality, how do various institutions and practices contribute to it, and how does it change?
There is a coordination problem in social relations; namely, for interactions between individuals to proceed smoothly, they must be able to synchronize their behavior. In US society, there are many shared category systems used to create “common knowledge.” However, according to Ridgeway, these categories, “…must be so simplified that they can be quickly applied as framing devices to virtually anyone to start the process of defining self and other in the situation.” If you meet an unfamiliar person, you will, “automatically and instantly,” categorize them, and your interaction will proceed with this information in mind. In the US, the basic “primary” cultural categories include sex, race, and age. –
In general, men are believed to be especially more competent than women in male-typed settings (e.g. engineering, sports) and positions of authority, while women are advantaged in female-typed settings (e.g. childcare, communication). In mixed sex, gender neutral settings, men are believed to be modestly and diffusely more competent. Even though these beliefs are based are based on the “average” woman and the “average” man, they become the “default rules” for coordinating behavior. So if equally qualified applicants apply for a male-typed job, such as a computer engineer, male applicants will be advantaged relative to female applicants. But if two equally qualified applicants apply to a female-typed job, such as a nanny, the woman would be more likely to receive the job offer.
TYPES OF INEQUALITIES
Mortality inequality: In some regions in the world, inequality between women and men directly involves matters of life and death, and takes the brutal form of unusually high mortality rates of women and a consequent preponderance of men in the total population, as opposed to the preponderance of women found in societies with little or no gender bias in health care and nutrition. Mortality inequality has been observed extensively in North Africa and in Asia, including China and South Asia.
Natality inequality: Given a preference for boys over girls that many male-dominated societies have, gender inequality can manifest itself in the form of the parents wanting the newborn to be a boy rather than a girl. There was a time when this could be no more than a wish (a daydream or a nightmare, depending on one 's perspective), but with the availability of modern techniques to determine the gender of the foetus, sex-selective abortion has become common in many countries. It is particularly prevalent in East Asia, in China and South Korea in particular, but also in Singapore and Taiwan, and it is beginning to emerge as a statistically significant phenomenon in India and South Asia as well. This is high-tech sexism.
Basic facility inequality: Even when demographic characteristics do not show much or any anti-female bias, there are other ways in which women can have less than a square deal. Afghanistan may be the only country in the world the government of which is keen on actively excluding girls from schooling (it combines this with other features of massive gender inequality), but there are many countries in Asia and Africa, and also in Latin America, where girls have far less opportunity of schooling than boys do. There are other deficiencies in basic facilities available to women, varying from encouragement to cultivate one 's natural talents to fair participation in rewarding social functions of the community.
Special opportunity inequality: Even when there is relatively little difference in basic facilities including schooling, the opportunities of higher education may be far fewer for young women than for young men. Indeed, gender bias in higher education and professional training can be observed even in some of the richest countries in the world, in Europe and North America.
Sometimes this type of division has been based on the superficially innocuous idea that the respective "provinces" of men and women are just different. This thesis has been championed in different forms over the centuries, and has had much implicit as well as explicit following. It was presented with particular directness more than a hundred years before Queen Victoria 's complaint about "woman 's rights" by the Revd James Fordyce in his Sermons to Young Women (1766), a book which, as Mary Wollstonecraft noted in her A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792), had been "long made a part of woman 's library." Fordyce warned the young women, to whom his sermons were addressed, against "those masculine women that would plead for your sharing any part of their province with us," identifying the province of men as including not only "war," but also "commerce, politics, exercises of strength and dexterity, abstract philosophy and all the abstruser sciences."1 Even though such clear-cut beliefs about the provinces of men and women are now rather rare, nevertheless the presence of extensive gender asymmetry can be seen in many areas of education, training and professional work even in Europe and North America.
Professional inequality: In terms of employment as well as promotion in work and occupation, women often face greater handicap than men. A country like Japan may be quite egalitarian in matters of demography or basic facilities, and even, to a great extent, in higher education, and yet progress to elevated levels of employment and occupation seems to be much more problematic for women than for men.
In the English television series called "Yes, Minister," there is an episode where the Minister, full of reforming zeal, is trying to find out from the immovable permanent secretary, Sir Humphrey, how many women are in really senior positions in the British civil service. Sir Humphrey says that it is very difficult to give an exact number; it would require a lot of investigation. The Minister is still insistent, and wants to know approximately how many women are there in these senior positions. To which Sir Humphrey finally replies, "Approximately, none."
Ownership inequality: In many societies the ownership of property can also be very unequal. Even basic assets such as homes and land may be very asymmetrically shared. The absence of claims to property can not only reduce the voice of women, but also make it harder for women to enter and flourish in commercial, economic and even some social activities.2 This type of inequality has existed in most parts of the world, though there are also local variations. For example, even though traditional property rights have favoured men in the bulk of India, in what is now the State of Kerala, there has been, for a long time, matrilineal inheritance for an influential part of the community, namely the Nairs.
Household inequality: There are, often enough, basic inequalities in gender relations within the family or the household, which can take many different forms. Even in cases in which there are no overt signs of anti-female bias in, say, survival or son-preference or education, or even in promotion to higher executive positions, the family arrangements can be quite unequal in terms of sharing the burden of housework and child care. It is, for example, quite common in many societies to take it for granted that while men will naturally work outside the home, women could do it if and only if they could combine it with various inescapable and unequally shared household duties. This is sometimes called "division of labour," though women could be forgiven for seeing it as "accumulation of labour." The reach of this inequality includes not only unequal relations within the family, but also derivative inequalities in employment and recognition in the outside world. Also, the established fixity of this type of "division" or "accumulation" of labour can also have far-reaching effects on the knowledge and understanding of different types of work in professional circles. When I first started working on gender inequality, in the 1970s, I remember being struck by the fact that the Handbook of Human Nutrition Requirement of the World Health Organisation (WHO), in presenting "calorie requirements" for different categories of people, chose to classify household work as "sedentary activity," requiring very little deployment of energy.3 I was, however, not able to determine precisely how this remarkable bit of information had been collected by the patrician leaders of society.
FACTS ABOUT GENDER INEQUALITY
The five countries with the best record of gender parity are Iceland, Finland, Norway, Sweden and the Philippines.
Iceland holds the top spot for the fifth year in a row and "continues to be the country with the narrowest gender gap in the world."
The U.S. is at number 23, falling behind several countries that it has tried to bomb or colonize, such as Cuba and Nicaragua, or moralize at, such as Burundi. (Official U.S. government goals in Burundi are "to help the people of Burundi realize a just and lasting peace based upon democratic principles and sustainable economic development.")
The U.S. also is only at number 17 in gender parity out of the 49 high-income countries that have been measured--a rather poor showing for a country that tops the chart when it comes to high incomes. According to one recent study, incomes among the top 1 percent in the U.S. rose by 31.4 percent between 2009 and 2012, while incomes for everyone else grew just 0.4 percent. This wealth is obviously not going toward ensuring gender equality.
China, the emerging economic competitor to the U.S., is at number 69 with a steady deterioration in its gender relations since 2010. China and the U.S. have the greatest number of millionaire households, and China has seen one of the biggest economic booms in recent years. It is thus alarming that in China, just like in the U.S., the sole beneficiaries of this boom has been the rich. The disparity is particularly clear in certain key areas: for instance, the report ranks China at 133, almost to the very bottom of all the countries surveyed, in the Health and Survival category.
Indeed, some of the leading affluent nations perform very poorly on the "Health and Survival" Category. Israel, for example, is at 93 falling below the country it demonizes regularly: Iran!
The five countries with the poorest record for gender parity are Mauritania, Syria, Chad, Pakistan and Yemen. Not to let the national ruling classes of these countries off the hook, but it 's important to bear in mind that these countries have all been the victim of devastating imperialist policies and violence from the West. Along with colonialism, drone strikes and International Monetary Fund demands, we can also add the resultant gender disparity to the list of the West 's "gifts" to these countries.
Gender equality is the measurable equal representation of women and men. Gender equality does not imply that women and men are the same, but that they have equal value and should be accorded equal treatment.
The United Nations regards gender equality as a human right. It points out that empowering women is also an indispensable tool for advancing development and reducing poverty.
Equal pay for equal work is one of the areas where gender equality is rarely seen. All too often women are paid less than men for doing the same work.
This is one of the reasons that the majority of the world’s poor are women: around 70% of the people who live in extreme poverty, on less than US$1 a day, are girls and women.
Suffrage (the right to vote) is another area of gender equality that still does not extend to all the women in the world. Saudi Arabia does not give women the right to vote; in the USA right wing commentators say that women should never have been given the right to vote.
The importance of gender equality is highlighted by its inclusion as one of the 8 Millennium Development Goals that serve as a framework for halving poverty and improving lives.
Despite this, discrimination against women and girls (such as gender-based violence, economic discrimination, reproductive health inequities and harmful traditional practices) remains the most pervasive and persistent form of inequality.
Despite modernization and acknowledgment of right, we still see countries facing the problem of gender inequality and let most to suffer from this are developing countries. After the research we can conclude that inequality does not only brings in stress and problems along it but also economically affects. The relationship between economic and gender equality is very clear. there are people who still do not allow women to go ut and work. We still think women are not supposed to go out and work as they go out they will get dominant over men. Girls are removed early from schools. Early marriages. Those who work have a glass ceiling or are not allowed to go on higher posts then men. And so on so forth. If we remove this gender inequality, let the women work educate them, they will not only be contributing with the man to run the house expenses but also help in economy; less dependent people, more bread earning hence a good lifestyle. With such an inflationary economy where prices are going up, one person is not enough to earn and feed the family. A women who is educated, can raise her children in a very well-mannered and appropriate way with good moral and ethnic values. A healthy home comes with educated women.
Amartya Sen. Many faces of gender inequality. FRONTLINE. Volume 18 - Issue 22, Oct. 27 - Nov. 09, 2001
Sex differences in humans . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gender_inequality
Tithi Bhattacharya. Measuring gender inequality. report on the gender gap internationally. from http://socialistworker.org/2013/11/04/measuring-gender-inequality
Bibliography: Amartya Sen. Many faces of gender inequality. FRONTLINE. Volume 18 - Issue 22, Oct. 27 - Nov. 09, 2001 Sex differences in humans