Pronoun and Noun Phrase

Topics: Pronoun, Adjective, Subject Pages: 39 (3953 words) Published: January 28, 2015


Exercise 1Divide the following sentences into constituents by putting slant lines (/) between the constituents. Try to replace constituents by a shorter phrase, or just one word.

1.Her eldest son/ hates/ mock turtle soup.
he hates it

2.The examples/ given here/ show that /constituents/ can be/

very long.

it given here show that it can be very long

3.That young hooligan (he)/ should have offered/ the old lady in

the grey coat (her)/ his seat (it).

4.In England,/ French food (it)/ is regarded as sophisticated and

elegant.

5.In his speech of 1884 (in it)/the then British Prime Minister (he)/, Lord

Roseberry,/ discussed/ the British Empire (it).

6.Several people (they)/ have been (were) injured/ in a train crash (there).

7Supporters/ of the use/ of modern English (it)/ in church/ have

many arguments.

8.A private museum/ of old motorcars (it)/ was founded/ by Lord

Montagu/ in 1952 (then)/ in memory/ of his father (of him),/ an early

motorcar enthusiast.

9.We/ are sitting/ in heavy silence/ in the editing suite (in it)/ lent to

us/ by Granada Television (by it).

10.Last year's teachers' boycott (when)/ of national curriculum testing (it)/

must have been (was it)/ the most successful piece of industrial

action (of that)/ in years (when).

Exercise 2

Familiarize yourself with the word-class labels in English and Dutch (see section 6), and try to determine to which word-class the words in the examples in section 1 c. belong.

those, weak, to speak, with
(demonstrative pronoun, adjective, lexical verb, preposition

She made a sign
pers. pronoun lex ind. art. noun

She signed a lettre
pers. pronoun lex. ind. art. noun

this is a hard sign
dem. pronoun lex. ind. art. noun

they worked hard
pers. pronoun lex. adverb 9because it says something about work)

Snow white had an evil stepmother
noun lex. indef. art. adj. noun
They discussed the evils of the western world
pers. pr. lex. def. art. noun. prep. def. adj. noun.

Exercise 3

Look up in the English dictionary the words dry, drink, rough, and round , and say to which word classes they can belong. Give examples.

Dry
Dry is an adjective.
Is the grass dry enough to cut?

Drink
A verb. To drink someone under the table

Rough
adverb. I had a rough day at the office

Round
An adverb, as well as a preposition. We travelled round the country OR She turned round and turned back to the house. Exercise 4

Underline the Subject and the Predicator in the following sentences.

1Alex/ is (copula)/ a very responsible chap (SA, DO)/.

2.He /stopped (lexical) /the car (DO)/ at a pedestrian crossing.

Adverb: at a pedestrian crossing

3.Last year's labour dispute/ caused (lexical verb)/ a lot of unrest (DO).

4.The young man in the raincoat/ opposite/ me (indirect object (to-word); diegene die ontvangt)/ offered (lexical)/ his

binoculars (DO).

5.Any new recording/ will/ (modal auxiliary) automatically/ erase (lexical verb, predicator) /any previous

recording on the tape (DO).

Adverb: any & any previous

6.That rude boy (subject; die de handeling uitvoert))/ should have (auxiliary) given (lexical verb)/ the woman with the

crying baby(Ind. ob)/ his seat (DO).

7.One of the creepy-looking guys/ has ordered (lexical verb) /his girlfriend (BO)/ a

bloody Mary(DO).

Adverb: one of the creepy-looking guys

9.Anyone going into Paddington's room(subject)/ would have found (lexical verb)

/him (DO)/ in bed.

Adverb:in bed

10.Sir Sealy Bloom/ was looking (copula, because you can replace it with is or was)/ tired and cross (Subject attribute).

11.The funny little man/ could make (lexical)/ his mouth all kinds of

shapes (DO).

12.Above the shops(there; provisional subject)/ there (subject OR provisional...
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