Project Regarding Earthquake

Topics: Earthquake, Mercalli intensity scale, Richter magnitude scale Pages: 11 (2682 words) Published: August 26, 2013
Project regarding Earthquakes

By –B.V.L.N.KIRAN KUMAR
M.Sc
Faculty in pace, the global school, Ongole.

Project regarding Earthquakes

Contents:

1. Earthquakes-introduction (what?)

2. Historical views of Earthquakes

3. Causes for Earthquake (why?)

4. Earthquake prone areas in the World, India and Andhra Pradesh (where?)

* Significant earthquakes in and around India

* The Ten Largest Earthquakes since 1900 in the World

* Major Earthquakes around the World, 2012
5. Measuring and locating of Earthquakes (How?)

6. Effects of Earthquakes(results)
* Shaking and ground rupture
* Landsides and avalanches
* Fires
* Soil liquefaction
* Tsunami
* Floods
* Human impacts

7. Prediction

8. To Do List
* Before An Earthquake
* During An Earthquake
* After an Earthquake

9. Bibliography

An Earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes are one of the most destructive of natural hazards.

The seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. 2. Historical views of earthquakes:
* From the lifetime of the Greek philosopher Anaxagoras in the 5th century BCE to the 14th century CE, earthquakes were usually attributed to "air (vapors) in the cavities of the Earth.

* "Thales of Miletus, who lived from 625–547 (BCE) was the only documented person who believed that earthquakes were caused by tension between the earth and water.
* Other theories existed, including the Greek philosopher Anaxamines' (585–526 BCE) beliefs that short incline episodes of dryness and wetness caused seismic activity.

* The Greek philosopher Democritus (460–371 BCE) blamed water in general for earthquakes. Pliny the Elder called earthquakes "underground thunderstorms." * In European history, the earliest recorded earthquake occurred in 580 B.C. * Earthquakes have been recorded as early as 1177 B.C. in China. * Of course earthquakes have been a part of myth and legend since the dawn of man. In Greek Mythology, Posseidon (Neptune in the Roman pantheon) was "God of the Sea". Yet one of his powers was thought to be that of "earth shaker".

As a tsunami is often the result of an earthquake, this was an appropriate power for a sea god.

* Aristotle was one of the first Europeans to create a theory about the origin of Earthquakes. He thought that they were the result of heavy winds. Not much more study was concentrated on earthquakes until the mid-1700s when London was hit by a devastating quake and a tsunami struck Lisbon, Portugal shortly after. * John Mitchell in England and Elie Bertrand in Switzerland began a comprehensive study of the timing and severity of earthquakes. * Soon scientists from several countries were exchanging observations and theories on earthquakes. In the 1820's Chile became an area of interest to seismologists. After an earthquake there, it was noticed that the elevation of the coastline had changed. This was substantiated by the Captain of the H.M.S. Beagle, Robert Fitzroy. (The ship also carried Charles Darwin who was studying the flora and fauna of the coast.)

* In the 1850s Robert Mallet, figured out a means to measure the velocity of seismic waves.

* Meanwhile, in Italy, Luigi Palmieri invented an electromagnetic seismograph, one of which was installed near Mount Vesuvius and another at the University of Naples. These seismographs were the first seismic instruments capable of routinely detecting earthquakes imperceptible to human beings. Electromagnetic seismograph

* In 1872 a U.S. scientist named Grove Gilbert figured out that earthquakes usually center around a fault line. * It was...
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