Project on Eureka Forbes

Topics: Water, Water purification, Activated carbon Pages: 24 (6002 words) Published: March 14, 2011

1. Nearly 80% of the surface of earth is water.
2. 97% of all water on earth is sea water.
3. Chemically, it us 2 atoms of Hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen.
We and Water :

1. The human body is made up of about 70% water.
2. Every system in our body needs water.
3. Water makes up 83% of our blood.
4. Water helps us digest food.
5. Water transports body wastes.
6. Water keeps our temperature correct.
7. Each day we must replace 2.4 ltrs. of water. Drinking replaces only a part of it. The rest of the water is taken by the body from food.

Water Treatment Plant
Follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Water may be treated differently in different communities depending on the quality of the water which enters the plant. Groundwater is located underground and typically requires less treatment than water from lakes, rivers, and streams.

The Water Cycle :

Drinking water can come from both surface water and ground water. The water cycle begins with rainwater and snow melt that gathers in lakes and rivers which interact with ground water.

What Is Water Purification?
Water purification generally means freeing water from any kind of impurity it contains, such as contaminants or micro organisms. Water purification is not a very one-sided process; the purification process contains many steps. The steps that need to be progressed depend on the kind of impurities that are found in the water. This can differ very much for different types of water. Water purification, or drinking water treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from surface water or groundwater to make it safe and palatable for human consumption. A wide variety of technologies may be used, depending on the raw water source, contaminants present, standards to be met, and available finances. Over time, ecosystems have developed sophisticated ways to process and store natural waste products such as sediments, nutrients, heavy metals, and bacteria. Water is the primary medium for transporting these materials through most ecosystems. The "water purification" process is accomplished to varying degrees in a variety of ecosystems including streams, wetlands, estuaries, and forests. Wetlands and riparian (streamside) plant communities are particularly efficient at improving water quality. These communities act as buffers that filter and process sediment and debris from floods, waste products from aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals, and, minerals, metals, and microorganisms before they can reach faster moving water such as rivers. Sources of Drinking Water Water to be used in public or private water supplies can be drawn from a variety of sources. Different sources of raw water demand different treatment methods to render it ft for human consumption.

Ultraviolet Treatment :
Ultraviolet treatment is the final, and in most cases, the most important step in the purification process. After the carbon filter has cleansed the water, it is exposed to intense dosages of UV light. This exposure effectively destroys viruses, bacteria, fungi, algae and protozoa. * UV light destroys a microorganism by scrambling its DNA structure * The cells are rendered sterile and cannot reproduce

* The cells are dead and no longer a threat
The table below lists many common microorganisms and the Ultraviolet dosage (in microwatts / cm2) required for 99.9999% destruction. All Noah products provide16,000 microwatts / cm2 or greater of UV exposure.

 Reverse Osmosis (RO): 

Water pressure is used to force water molecules through a membrane that has extremely tiny pores, leaving the larger contaminants behind. Purified water is collected from the "clean" side of the membrane, and water containing the concentrated contaminants is flushed down the drain from the "contaminated" side.  The average RO system is a unit consisting of a sediment/chlorine pre filter, the...
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