PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND PROJECT SUCCESS
AMAH O OLIVER
According to Kerzner (2010), "Success measures for projects are determined during the first steps in the engagement by the client and the project team. It is done by designing the proposal/scope - of - work (SOW) document." This process is carried out by a Project Manager. In other words, this person plans, explains to the project team their individual contribution and how their active input, contributes to project success (Kemp, 2006, p. 21). This essay will focus on Information Technology Project Management. That is the application of the skills, knowledge and methods of project management to deliver a project that is on time, according to budget and specification (APM 2006, p. 2). There are two main methods of managing a project. A general summary of the agile approach, as well as the Scrum process, will be explained. In addition, the Waterfall method along with the spiral model, will be discussed respectively. As this essay progresses, a critical analysis considering the edge, shortcomings and major variance of the Agile and Waterfall Methodologies, will be considered in terms of project success. Risk Management that is the well-organized process of identifying, analysing and monitoring Project risk (PMBOK, 2004, p. 111) will be explained. Furthermore, the practice of stipulating requirements by analysing stakeholder needs and the method of systematically studying and fine-tuning those specifications known as Requirement engineering will also be explained, in terms of its relevance to project success. A conclusion will get documented at the end of all these findings and recommendations about best practices will be delivered. “The highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software” (Hass, 2007, p. 4). This is a statement from the agile manifesto that was compiled by a group of seventeen people called the Agile Alliance. They set up the basic structure of agile in February, 2001 in Utah, USA. It is a project management method that is flexible and allows an iterative and incremental development to managing a project. This means that it ensures the client works closely with the software developers, to make sure the desired outcome gets archived (Hass, 2007, p.3). In addition, it releases small parts of the application to reduce risk (Dawson, 2009, p. 128). According to the agile manifesto (Agilemanifesto, 2014) there are some principles associated with the agile approach. These principles stress the prominent status of developers and how they collaborate with customers. They also emphasize on early and continuous release of the project, and they have a very high tolerance to change in requirements. The various agile methodologies are Scrum, Extreme Programming, Lean, Dynamic Systems Development Method, Crystal, and Feature-Driven Development (Wysocki, 2014, p. 51). They share many of the same values, characteristics, and practices but a different standpoint when it comes to implementation (ibid.). Scrum is a project management model suitable for projects with complicated requirements (Wysocki, 2009, p. 331). The name Scrum is a Rugby strategy that uses teamwork to return a ball that has gone out of play, back into the game. (Wysocki, 2009, p. 451). In Scrum, projects pass through a set of iterations called sprints. The length of a sprint can be as short as one to two weeks or could stretch up to one month. However, the software development team is in total control of deciding how long it lasts. Everybody in the project team works mutually to achieve the set of tasks they have collectively pledged to develop during a sprint. A concise gathering named The Daily Scrum is held every day during the sprint, and it aids in establishing the view of the day’s job (Schwaber, 2004, p. 28). When a sprint ends, the small part of the application that got developed is tested, and if it works correctly, it is considered as...
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