DISSERTATION LITERATURE REVIEW
In this literature review we will be looking at reading based around the idea of
progression within music. Comparisons between different pieces of text
regarding the current position of music, and if possible, the future of music
and how it can progress.
The main books in discussion will consist of, “Simon Reynolds:Retromania”,
“David Gauntlett:Making is Connecting”, Attali:The Political Economy of Music.
A lot of the quotes that will be in discussion will revolve around the theme of
“post repetition”. This is a theory regarding the structure or stage of current
music, an idea Attali briefly discusses in context with three other previous
stages he believes to have occurred. This also explains the choice to discuss
“Retromania”, the themes from this book tie in with the concept of repetition
and revolves around firm beliefs that current music, and also society are
trapped in the past. However “Making is connecting” takes a more subjective
role in the discussion as it is primarily based around the individual creator in
the sense of their feeling and creativity, and does not so much involve the
influence of any capitalist ideas.
We will first draw some theories from Attali.
Attali’s book, (The Political Economy of Music) strikes an interest as Attali
draws up the comparison of Music running alongside society, and at points
beyond. In short, Attali draws the comparison in which music runs along side
social order and how the mindset of society, at any given time, is reflected
onto the art of music. Not just in the literal sense as would be applied to such
era’s as Punk, but in the progression of music over time.
"its styles and economic organization are ahead of the rest of society because
it explores, much faster than material reality can, the entire range of
possibilities in a given code.” (Attali,1977)
Here Attali is referring to music as a sped up representation of society at any
given time. This is why his current claim on post repetition is interesting as
any other stage or progression in music, according to Attali, could replicate
that of societies in the future. The question regarding this is whether it is
possible for music or society, to considerably progress onto what could be
seen as another stage of progression.
If the idea of post-repeating is feasible, then it could be seen that society, let
alone music, are currently trapped in a repeating existence that isn’t
progressing, only expanding. However for the time being it is more important
to look back if there is any chance of looking forward.
This is where Atalli’s four stages of music form in “Political Economy of
Music”, and during the last stage, the idea of post repeating is bought about.
This is the first stage from Political Economy of Music. The term Sacrifice
refers to the point in musical history where no sound was recorded, written,
and the art of music was completely detached from anything physical. It was
simply just an oral process. Music was simply a way of transferring current
cultural and social feelings from one person to another.
This term refers to the first printed music, 1500-1900 AD. Printed music was
the first form of music that was seen as a commodity, it could be seen as the
first time any form of technology had an influence upon human emotion. Attali
refers to this period as Representation because the performer would have to
represent and play the music that was printed for an audience.
The term repeating refers to the time period of around 1900 to the present.
The term is applied by Attali to any recorded sound of broadcasted sound
which was made possible by technological advancements. Even though this
meant music as an industry could really...
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