1. Understand what is meant by counselling.
1.1 Define what is meant by the term counselling.
BACP definition of counselling and psychotherapy:'Counselling and psychotherapy are umbrella terms that cover a range of talking therapies. They are delivered by trained practitioners who work with people over a short or long term to help them bring about effective change or enhance their wellbeing.’ (BACP [online]). The BACP states that “counselling takes place when a counsellor see a client in a private and confidential setting to explore a difficulty the client is having, distress they may be experiencing or perhaps their dissatisfaction with life or loss of a sense of direction and purpose. It is always at the request of the client as no one can properly be ‘sent’ for counselling. In the sessions the client can explore various aspects of their life and feelings, talking about them freely and openly in a way that is rarely possible with friends and family. Bottled up feelings such as anger, anxiety, grief and embarrassment can become very intense and counselling offers an opportunity to explore them, with the possibility of making them easier to understand.”(BACP Guidelines 2010) Oxford dictionary definition of counselling:A person trained to give guidance on personal or psychological problems. “counselling is a helping process with the overriding aim of helping clients to help themselves” (Richard Nelson-Jones 1989). “counselling is a collaborative relationship between client and a trained counsellor and by incorporating theory, research and practice counsellor’s aim is to accomplish client’s selfawareness, acceptance and ultimately progression to change so as to function well and resourcefully but also feel happier within a society” (McLeod, 2008). The function of counselling is to help people to resolve problem areas in their life. Counselling provides an opportunity for the person to explore the difficult feelings, thoughts and behaviours that have blocked the way to satisfying relationships, personal happiness. The purpose of counselling is to help clients achieve their personal goals, and gain greater insight into their lives. Living in the modern world, surrounded by confusion and at times chaos, we are often exposed to difficulties and challenging situations. We all have problems such as relationship difficulties, work demands, unemployment and other pressures we all face every day. The US psychologist Carl Rogers (influenced by Maslow, Alfred Adler and Otto Rank) established the person centred approach, which is at the heart of most current practice. The person centred approach is now listed under the 'humanistic' therapy. Carl Rogers developed the person-centred approach to therapy from four (pre war) distinctive philosophical beliefs, Existentialism, Phenomenology, Behaviourism and Psychoanalysis. 1
This form of humanistic therapy deals with the ways in which people perceive themselves consciously rather than having a therapist try to interpret unconscious thoughts or ideas. There are many different components and tools used in person-centred therapy including active listening, genuineness, paraphrasing. The real point is that the client already has the answers to the problems and the job of the therapist is to listen without making any judgements, without giving advice, and simply help the client feel accepted and understand their own feelings. Rogers has stated the basic hypothesis and the therapeutic conditions that define the person-centred approach as follows: The central hypothesis of this approach can be briefly stated. It is that the individual has within him or her self vast resources for self-understanding, for altering her or his selfconcept, attitudes, and self-directed behaviour--and that these resources can be tapped if only a definable climate of facilitative psychological attitudes can be provided. There are three conditions which constitute this growth-promoting climate, whether we are speaking...
References: Oxford dictionary. (2012) oxford university press. Mearns, D and Thorne, B. (1997) Person Centred Counselling in Action. SAGE Publications. Mearns, D. & Cooper, M. (2005). Working at Relational Depth in Counselling and Psychotherapy. London: Sage.
Wosket,Val (1999). The Therapeutic Use of Self: Counselling Practice, Research and Supervision. London: Routledge. Rogers, Carl R. (1957). The Necessary and Sufficient Conditions of Therapeutic Personality Change. Journal of Consulting Psychology. Rogers, Carl R. (1959). A Theory of Therapy, Personalityand Interpersonal Relationships, as Developed in the Client-centered framework. S. Koch (ed.), Psychology: A Study of a Science, Vol III, Formulations of the Person and the Social Context. New York McGraw-Hill. McLeod, J. (2008) Introduction to Counselling (Ed. D. Langdridge). Maidenhead/Milton Keynes: Open University Press/ The Open University. Rogers ,Carl R. (1961). On Becoming a Person. Published by Constable and Company. Bond T. (2010). Essential Law for Counsellors and Psychotherapists, SAGE Publications Windy Dyden & Colin Feltham (1994).Developing the Practice of counselling, SAGE Publications. Rogers, Carl R. (1980). Way of Being. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, Massatuses. Nelson-Jones, Richard. (1989). Student Handout. BACP. (2010). [online] http://www.BACP.co.uk
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