Paper is used for writing and printing, for wrapping and packaging, and for a variety of other applications ranging from kitchen towels to the manufacture of building materials. In modern times, paper has become a basic material, commonly found in almost all parts of the world. The basic process of making paper involves two stages: the breaking up of raw material (which contains cellulose fibre) in water to form a pulp (a suspension of fibres), and the formation of sheet paper by spreading this suspension on a porous surface, and drying, often under pressure. Hand papermaking has enjoyed a major revival over the past 30 years, using new and innovative approaches. Handmade paper has a unique texture and an individual quality that makes it not only a surface to write, paint, or print on, but an object of beauty in its own right. In addition, the versatility of paper in its wet form has led artists to experiment with paper-making as an art medium, creating two and three-dimensional images of textural richness and diversity, some on a vast scale. This production plan aims to cover only the area of hand papermaking technologies by Papertech private limited company for application in developing countries.
2.0 description of production process
Papertech focuses on hand papermaking at a small scale which suggests that Less than 30 tonnes of paper will be produced each day. Papermaking is more flexible in small papermaking plants, with the ability to cater for a variety of demands, albeit, sometimes, with a slightly lower quality than that of the larger dedicated plants. Hand papermaking is an ideal example of how small industries can be developed to make of use of local resources, both in terms raw materials and energy, while cutting transport costs and catering for a slowly growing local market. The initial capital investment requirement for the proposed small-scale papermaking plant is lower and therefore more attractive to prospective small business people with limited capital to hand. This is especially so in countries like Zimbabwe where machinery and equipment for manufacture is produced locally. Government measures are however needed to support this initiative, and if these measures are put in place Papertech can flourish.
Handmade paper which is the final output has a unique texture and an individual quality that makes it not only a surface to write, paint, or print on, but an object of beauty in its own right. In addition, the versatility of paper in its wet form has led artists to experiment with paper-making as an art medium, creating two- and three-dimensional images of textural richness and diversity, some on a vast scale.
The raw materials required for the papermaking process are mainly cotton from cuttings, lint and fluff from cotton mills, rags from cotton material, flax a residue from the manufacture of linen, Hemp and sisal from old ropes and tow from rope making factories and Jute from old sacks and hessian.
2.1 TYPE OF MACHINERY REQUIRED
Rag chopping machine which is used to chop the rags into small uniform sized pieces. This machine is mechanical and can be manufactured from pieces of wood and strips of steel by a semi-skilled carpenter. Implementation of this machine is cheaper in the long run since maintenance and service is done by the same carpenter on a cheaper contract basis. The machine is operated by 6 people who work in groups of three for 6 hour shifts. If this working schedule is properly implemented production may exceed 800kilograms of uniform sized strips per day.
A Hollander beater is an oval U-shaped trough, with a heavy roll whose face carries hard wearing metal bars and similar bars set into the plate below the roll, which cut the raw material to make the pulp. There is also a washing drum, which cleans the pulp and removes the dirty water. The whole process performed by these two is termed digesting and beating. For us to meet our minimum target...
Bibliography: Small-scale Papermaking, International Labour Organisation, IT Publications, 1993
A technical handbook to assist small-scale producers with alternative production techniques
- to help them choose and apply those techniques which are most appropriate to local
socio-economic conditions; Small-scale paper making case studies, Internal Document, ITDG, World Resource Foundation Information Sheet – Paper making and recycling, Web site of ‘The Robert C. Williams American Museum of Paper Making’. (http://www.ipst.edu/amp/index.html The Robert C. Williams).
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