Pekka Niemelä and Mauri Kauppi
Outokumpu Tornio Works, Tornio, Finland
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; mauri.kauppi@Outokumpu.com
World HCFeCr production is 6.0 million tonnes. Correspondingly 1.1-1.6 t slag / t FeCr is produced depending on the raw material basis. Essentially all FeCr is produced in submerged arc furnaces, while the role of competitive technologies like DC is limited. In all furnaces fluxes are used to optimize the slag composition.
Vital characteristics are smelting point, electric conductivity and viscosity. The main components of FeCr slag are SiO2, Al2O3 and MgO. Additionally it consists of Cr-, Fe-oxides and CaO.
Granulated slag and/or classified slag products are produced depending on the production process. The slag products are mainly marketed in road and civil construction purposes but also in producing refractories.
Normally crushed and screened slags are produced simultaneously when recovering alloy. The leachate of slag products is low and performance results are excellent. Slag products successfully replace natural sand and macadam. Generation of waste is essentially reduced. Producing and using slag products are described as BAT-technology and it is an essential environmental aspect.
Outokumpu Tornio Works produces 320 000 t FeCr-slag/a. This paper deals with formation of slag in smelting process, its chemical composition, physical and structural characteristics, utilization and product specifications as well as environmental aspects. The slag products are standardized and CE marked. Additionally the role of slag in smelting and alloy recovery is reviewed in this paper.
World high carbon ferrochrome production, charge chrome and HCFeCr, was 6.0 million tonnes in 2005. The production increased by 2.8 per cent from the year 2004. Almost all ferrochrome is produced in submerged electric arc furnaces.
The raw material in