Problems Related to the Identifying, Diagnosis and Assessment of Adolescent Depression

Topics: Major depressive disorder, Bipolar disorder, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Pages: 13 (2314 words) Published: April 22, 2014
Problems Related to the
Identifying, Diagnosis and
Assessment of Adolescent
Depression

Corna Olivier
Student number 6919596
University of South Africa

Table of Contents
Pg
Title page………………………………………………………………………….. 1 Table of Contents ……………………………………………………………… 2 Introduction………………………………………………………………………. 3 Adolescent Depression and the DSM-IV-TR ….………………………….

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Gender differences in Adolescent Depression ……………………………… 7 Culture and other environmental influences …………………………………. 9 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………..10 List of References ……………………………………………………………….. 11 Plagiarism Declaration …………………………………………………………. 13

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Unique Assignment no 277221
Std no 6919596

Introduction
Depression in adolescents has become very prominent in recent years. The impression that the increase in depression cases amongst adolescents has taken on epidemic proportions, has been successfully refuted (Costello, Erkanli, & Angold, 2006) but nevertheless it remains concerning. Add to this the more worrying notion that many cases of adolescent depression may go unnoticed, or be misdiagnosed, and one can see why it has become important to try and find the reasons behind these difficulties. Because only once we have correctly identified the problems we can start working on finding solutions.

Depression as a medical disorder is hard to diagnose, even among adults. Doctor A.J. Mitchell reported that in a meta-analysis undertaken by a group of affiliates from The Clinical Advisor it was found that clinicians correctly diagnosed only half of the cases in the study who were clinically depressed. Furthermore they diagnosed 20% the control group – people who did not suffer from depression, incorrectly, as depressed.

(Mitchell, 2009)

adolescent phase is a turbulent time in every human’s development.

The
In this

phase the brain starts to release hormones which cause physical, emotional and cognitive changes in the person.

It is also in this period when

mainstream schools have the young person move from junior school to middle and senior school. This is the phase in a human’s development when gender awareness and differences reaches its peak. It is only to be expected then, that depression may quite probably manifest differently in boys than what it 3

Unique Assignment no 277221
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does in girls.

One also has to consider that environmental factors, for

example, nationality, ethnic groupings and the socioeconomic environment of the adolescent all may influence the ultimate correct identification, diagnosis and assessment of the depressive state of the teen.

Depression is a broad term but clinically the following categories exist: MDE (Major Depressive Episode)
ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
Bipolar Disorder
Depression
Depressive disorder not otherwise specified.

In this short paper I looked at the difficulties around the identifying, diagnosis and assessment of depression in adolescents. I have read various scholarly articles, magazine articles and on-line articles dealing with the topic. I have also stumbled upon a highly entertaining talk posted on YouTube. Using the data gathered by the authors I present this discussion paying specific attention to the possible influences of gender and other contextual differences on the problem in question.

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Unique Assignment no 277221
Std no 6919596

Adolescent Depression and the DSM-IV-TR
The first and most apparent difficulty lies in the classification of depression. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association and used widely by psychologists and psychiatrists to help identify and classify mental disorders and diseases. The current form of the manual (DSM-IV-TR) has last been updated in 2000 and according to an article in the Scientific American (Jaber,2013) the latest updated manual should be released in May 2013. At the present time the...

References: (1995) The development of a short questionnaire for use in epidemiological
studies of depression in children and adolescents
Burwell, R.A., & Shirk, S.R. (2006). Self-processes in adolescent depression:
The role of selfworth contingencies
Chalmers, A (2011). Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) retrieved from
http://www.cebc4cw.org/assessment-tool/mood-and-feelings-questionnaire-mfq/
Costello, E.J., Erkanli, A., & Angold, A., (2006). Is there an epidemic of child or
adolescent depression? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(12),
Crowe, M., Ward, N., Dunnachie, B., & Roberts, M. (2006). Characteristics of
adolescent depression
Han, W.J., & Miller, D.P. (2009). Parental work schedules and adolescent
depression
Hirsch, D., Brizendine, L. (2007). Teen girl brain: High drama, high risk for
depression
Marsella, A. J. (2003). Cultural Aspects of Depressive Experience and
Disorders
Milevsky, A., Schlechter, M., Netter, S., & Keehn, D. (2007). Maternal and
paternal parenting styles in adolescents: Associations with self-esteem,
Mitchell, A.J. (2009, December) Why Depression is hard to Diagnose. The
Clinical Advisor,12(9)
Std no 6919596
Page, R.M., & Hall, C.P (2009)
The PYC4802/PSY481U Team, (2013),Tutorial letter PYC4802/101/0/2013, 3135
Wilson, G
Std no 6919596
PLAGIARISM DECLARATION (The PYC4802/PSY481U Team, 2013)
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