Definition and explanation of teenage
Teenage pregnancy is simply defined teenage girl who became pregnant at an early age. The term connotes that the girl has not reach the legal adulthood before conceiving. Like United States, our country, Philippines also facing this kind of problem. Our government discusses how to prevent and low down the rate of pregnancy especially in the teenagers. Most cases of teenage pregnancies are observed in the lower economic strata of society where there is a lack of knowledge, awareness and facility to address the problem of unintended pregnancy. Teenage pregnancy is often associated with an increase rate of delinquent behaviors including alcohol and substance abuse. An absentee parent can create insecurities in children, and depending on the parent’s role in the child’s life, can make some children more prone to crime and other emotional issues. Causes of teen pregnancy and tips to surpass it
Family problem affects the thinking ability of a teenager. It makes them to create decisions that they think it’s good for them, they ask advices to their friends than their families. This is also the time that teens are starting to learn to drink alcohol and use prohibited drugs to satisfy their selves and to forget the problems between his/her family. One thing that the teens think can help them to get away from their family is to get pregnant. They act so reckless yet after getting pregnant they’ll come to their parents for the financial support for the baby. If the family problem doesn’t stop that early this will be the reason for the adolescent to pursue their plan in getting pregnant. Their mind is really sober and can’t think well, one of the family members should talk to their family member that is involved on the specific circumstances.
Parents have the most important role in the life of a teenager. They are the ones that adolescents look up too whenever they have problems. They must be responsible for the safety and wellbeing of their children. Try to be more supportive than to criticize them. Try to discuss with them some certain issues to reach an outcome that you and your teenager can both accept. Make conversation with them over breakfast and dinner, having heart to heart talk with will help to enlighten their minds and they can think clearly.
One factor that leads teen girls to become pregnant is peer pressure. Many teens sexualize themselves or engage in behavior for which they are not yet ready because they want to fit in or be popular. Peer pressure to engage in sexual activity is so common, a variety of terms refer to the behavior, such as "hooking up," "booty calls" or referring to someone as "a friend with benefits." If you’re a parent, consider the impact that peer pressure could have on her decisions, and the potential ramifications of this impact. Any teen succumb to pressure to have sex. All teens have sexual urges especially boys, they engage in sex before they are ready. Popular teens are also vulnerable. Some of the typical peer pressures that teenagers face are drugs, smoking, alcohol, sex and dangerous driving. If their friends value having sex, then they are likely to have sex, too. Many times these teens let their friends influence their decision to have sex even when they do not fully understand the consequences associated with the act. Still others find it easier to give in and have sex than to try to explain why not. Some teenagers get caught up in the romantic feelings and believe having sex is the best way they can prove their love. Most teenagers experience sudden and hitherto unknown emotions and feelings during their early puberty. They feel a natural sense of rebelling against the set norms as well. All this, coupled with a sudden sense of new-found freedom and sexuality, results in many of them giving vent to their feelings through sexual expressions and experiences. The only way they could probably achieve that would be by having a boyfriend or girlfriend or at least by dating and indulging in sexual acts often. This kind of rash behavior could lead to unintended pregnancies.
When you feel threaten and pressure, you must stop and ignore them. These people will bring the worst out of you. Find a substitute and affirming friend, it’s good to have friends who can affirm you. Develop a sense of humor; crack a joke and everyone’s going to admire you. Be prepared, make a plan and be prepared for the times you’ll face peer pressure. Most teens do not want to become pregnant; they are still becoming so as a result of sexual activity. While actual force to have sex is rare, many teenage girls (especially those under the age of 15) feel pressured to have sex. Rape does happen and is one of the reasons that teen pregnancies occur. Rape by boyfriends, family members and even strangers can result in teen pregnancy. 50 - 60% of teens were molested prior to their first pregnancy, 50% of perpetrators were family members. To avoid rape, avoid walking alone as much as possible. Be mentally prepared. Always carry pepper spray and learn self defense. Ways of Preventing Teen Parenthood
Teenage pregnancy is a rather frightening reality that can change your life in an instant. The good news is that teenage pregnancy is avoidable: By not having sex, you never risk getting pregnant. If you do decide to have sex, it's best to stay informed about what you can do to avoid unwanted pregnancy.
Abstinence is the only form of birth control that is 100% effective in preventing pregnancy. Abstinence also protects people form STDs. This way helps teenagers to refrain from getting pregnant. Also prevents pregnancy by keeping the sperm out of the vagina. For us, abstinence is the safest way of preventing pregnancy. It has many benefits, it has no medical and hormonal side effects and it is free. Teenagers can used this method to focus on school, career and family. Any woman or man can abstain from sex play. Many do so at various times in their lives. Teen girls are more likely to get pregnant if they have limited or no guidance from their parents. Many parents have busy lives that prevent them from providing the guidance and support that their young teenagers need to make good decisions on issues such as sex. If you’re a parent, talking to your children will have a big effect on them especially when you’re talking about intercourse. Communicating with your children about sex, love, and relationships is often more successful when you are clear in your own mind about these issues. Start the conversation, and make sure that it is honest, open, and respectful. Many inexpensive books and videos are available to help with any detailed information you might need, but don’t let your lack of technical information make you shy. If you’re a teenager, ask advices to the people you trust. Let them clarify issues about pregnancy and sex. Don’t be shy asking your parents about it. Being open to them will keep you away from the risk of getting pregnant. The effectiveness of birth control methods is critically important for reducing the risk of unintended pregnancy. Effectiveness can be measured during “perfect use,” when the method is used correctly and consistently as directed, or during “typical use,” which is how effective the method is during actual use (including inconsistent and incorrect use). Using contraceptives helps those to refrain to avoid pregnancy also some contraceptives are good for health. You can use injectable progestin; this method is extremely effective since all that's required of a woman is to return to her health care provider for a shot every three months. Males can use male condoms; these are thin tube made of latex. This is the best contraception to avoid having STDs.
Psychological Effect of Teen Pregnancy
It's common for pregnant teens to feel a range of emotions, such as fear, anger, guilt, confusion, and sadness. It may take a while to adjust to the fact that you're going to have a baby. It's a huge change, and it's natural for pregnant teens to wonder whether they're ready to handle the responsibilities that come with being a parent. A. Emotional Effect
1. Initial Excitement - Some teenagers are excited to bear a child, especially when it is their first pregnancy. They are excited to see their baby. Others are excited to buy clothes and other things for the baby. They think of names for the baby. 2. Confuse - Some are confused and at a loss on what to do. They are too young and many have no idea about bearing a child. 3. Afraid - Some are scared. They think of questions like, “How should I tell my parents?” “How will I face my classmates?” or “What is the best thing to do to solve this problem?” They are afraid to answer these questions. They feel scared on what will be the reactions of their parents. 4. Frustrated - Pregnant teenagers will realize that they are not yet ready to bear a child when it’s already late. 5. Hopelessness - Low self-esteem increases vulnerability and decreases her ability to refuse to go along with risky sexual behaviors. 6. Denial – Some teenagers just neglect and abandoning her/his baby. 7. Worries about the future – Several uncertainties may arise. She may start worrying how would she dealing with the baby herself. 8. Mood Swings - It's very common to have mood swings during pregnancy. Some girls may also experience depression during pregnancy or after delivery. B. Mental Effect of Early Pregnancy
1. Depression - It is common among pregnant teenager who is desperate to solve their problems. Some teenagers try to solve their problem by abortion and suicide. Abortion, it is the removal of a fetus from the mother’s womb. Abortion is illegal. About 300,000 to 500,000 women undergo abortion every year. Article 256, 258 and 259 in the Revised Penal Code of the Philippine penalize women who undergo abortion and others who help her with imprisonment. Some teenager, however, think that abortion is a way to solve their problem. Medical Risk
A woman of any age is pregnant and unaware of it is likely not to get the nutrition she needs to sustain both herself and her unborn child. Part of what boosts the rate of mortalities in teen births is that, worldwide, teens have a higher rate of premature birth and low birth-weight babies. Many researchers believe that this is due to a lack of adequate prenatal care, either because teen mothers are too scared or lack the financial resources to seek out medical help. Many wait until the third trimester to see a doctor, which raises levels of anemia and nutritional deficiencies in young mothers. Because of this lack of early care, children of teen mothers are more likely to suffer from health issues and to be hospitalized within their first year of life. Prematurity plays the greatest role in low birth weight, but intrauterine growth retardation (inadequate growth of the fetus during pregnancy) is also a factors. The younger a mother is below age 20, the greater the risk of her infant dying during the first year of life. It is very important for pregnant teens to have early and adequate prenatal care. Factors can be divided into maternal and fetal. Maternal factors include age (younger than age 15, older than age 35); weight (pre-pregnancy weight under 100 lb or obesity); height (under five feet); history of complications during previous pregnancies (including stillbirth, fetal loss, preterm labor and/or delivery, small-for-gestational age baby, large baby, pre-eclampsia or eclampsia); more than five previous pregnancies; bleeding during the third trimester; abnormalities of the reproductive tract; uterine fibroids; hypertension. Premature may have problems with his or her vision, digestion, and respiratory. Children born to teenage mothers are less likely to receive proper nutrition, health care, and cognitive and social stimulation. As a result, they are at risk for lower academic achievement. Teens are more at risk for certain problems during pregnancy, such as anemia, high blood pressure, and giving birth earlier than usual (called premature delivery). Clinic-focused programs provide easier access to information, counseling by health care providers, and contraceptive services. Many of these programs are offered through school-based clinics. See a doctor as soon as possible after you’ve found out that you are pregnant to begin prenatal care. Take vitamin supplements that are recommended by your doctor to support you and your baby’s health. Avoid the intakes of drugs and alcohol during pregnancy. Using illegal drugs such as cocaine or marijuana during pregnancy can cause miscarriage, prematurity, and other medical problems. Babies can also be born addicted to certain drugs. Socioeconomic Problems
Throughout the developed world, teenage pregnancy is more common among young people who have been disadvantaged in childhood and have low expectations of education or the job market. Socio-economic circumstances seem to play a major role in rates of teen pregnancy. There may be a growing “lost generation” of young people who see no reason not to get pregnant. Teens coming from poor economic status and single parents are more likely to participate in risky sexual behaviors. For some disadvantaged youth, particularly for girls whose self esteem tends to drop as they mature, sexuality may be all they have to value. Children of teenage parents are more likely to have problems and to eventually become teenage parents themselves, thus perpetuating the cycle of poverty begun by a teenage birth. It is widely acknowledged that health and social status are intimately related such that individuals in higher social classes are healthier and live longer than those in lower classes. This is true regardless of whether income, education or another socioeconomic indicator is used and regardless of the health outcome used. Teen mothers are less likely to complete the education necessary to qualify for a well-paying job —only 38 percent of mothers who have children before age 18 obtain a high school diploma. This disparity in education, not surprisingly, tends to affect income level. Teenage mothers and fathers tend to have less education and are more likely to live in poverty than their peers who are not teen parents. Babies born to teen mothers are more likely to have health problems at birth, do poorly in school, do time in jail and also become teen parents. Teen pregnancy is the leading cause of females dropping out of high school. Furthermore, less than 2 percent of teen mothers attain a college degree by age 30. Because of their lower education status, teen mothers on average earn lower incomes than their peers, and are thus more likely to be in poverty. Unmarried mothers of all ages reported most dissatisfaction with educational achievement. With the little income of both parents, it’s very difficult to provide with the required nutrition and care. It’s very difficult for teenage mother and father to support themselves and their baby. As their education is cut short, it’s very difficult for teenage parents to find decent job. Some parents just abandoned their child to escape the poverty.
The adolescent father faces immediate developmental crises, which include completing the developmental task of adolescence making a transition to parenthood, and sometimes adopting to marriage. These transitions can be stressful. The decision to include the young father in all aspects of the care is based on assessment in the following four areas: (1) the couple’s relationship; (2) levels of stress, concern, and coping; (3) educational and vocational goals; and (4) the level of health education knowledge. Adolescent fathers need support to discuss their emotional responses to the pregnancy. The father’s feelings of guilt, powerlessness, or bravado should be recognize because of their negative consequences for the parents and the child. Counseling the adolescent fathers needs to be reality oriented. Topics such as finances, child care, parenting skills, and the father’s role in the birth experience must be discussed. Teenage fathers also need to know about reproductive physiology and birth control options as well as safer sex practices.
The adolescent father may continue to be involved in an ongoing relationship with the young mother and his baby. In many instances, he also plays an important role in the decisions about child care and raising the child. He is encouraged to use coping mechanisms that are not detrimental to his own, his parent’s, or his child’s well-being. Fathers can experience postpartum depression. There is a lot of advice out there for girls who find them facing an unwanted or unexpected pregnancy but there is very little information out there for guys. It takes two to make a baby but all too often when the pregnancy is announced the guy gets lost in the confusion. But teen fatherhood is not something to be taken lightly and along with responsibilities to the mother and the child you have rights that you need to know about. Teen fathers are more likely to get involved with criminal behavior, including alcohol and drug abuse, and drug dealing. Depending on their age, teen fathers can also face charges of statutory rape. Teen fathers earn less over time than men who have children at an older age. Over time, teen fathers earn 10 to 15 percent less annually than male teens that wait to have children. A young father's financial insecurity or confusion about child care was most likely to lead to a stated disinterest, and that disinterest predicted uninvolvement. .To be a good teen father you can do the following: Choosing to stand by your baby is a big deal and shows that you definitely have the potential for the job. If you are still in a relationship with the mother of the child then that’s great, you can work together to be good parents and raise a happy child. Be sure to support the mother through the pregnancy, it is a very difficult time for her and her body is changing in a big way. Try and have some sort of balance, if you are working constantly you will never get to see your child. Teenage fathers should be a role model to their baby. They are the one shaping the characteristic of their children. Teen Mothers
The very young adolescent mother is inexperienced and unprepared to recognize the early sign of illness, potential danger, or household hazards. She may inadvertently neglect her child. The higher mortality rates among the infants of adolescent mother are attributed to the inexperience, lack of knowledge, and immaturity of the mothers, causing them to unable to recognize a problem and obtain the necessary resources to rectify the situation. Nevertheless, in most instances, with adequate and developmentally appropriate teaching, Adolescents can learn effective parenting skills.
The transition to parenthood may be difficult to adolescent parents. Coping with the developmental task of parenthood is often complicated by the unmet developmental needs and tasks of adolescents. Some young parents may experience difficulty accepting a changing self image and adjusting to new roles related to the responsibilities of infant care. Other adolescent parents, however, may have higher self concepts than their non-parenting peers.
As adolescent parents move through the transition to parenthood, they may feel different from their peers, excluded from fun activities, and prematurely forced to enter an adult social role. The conflict between their own desires and the infant’s demands, in addition to the low tolerance for frustration that is typical of adolescents, further contribute to the normal psychosocial stress of child birth.
Maintaining a relationship with the baby’s father is beneficial for the teen mother and her infant the involvement of the baby’s father is related to appropriate maternal behaviors and positive mother-infant relationship. Adolescent mothers provide warm and attentive physical care; however, they use less verbal interaction than do older parents, and adolescents tend to be less responsive to interact less positively with their infants than do older mothers.
In comparison with adult mothers, teenage mothers have a limited knowledge of child development. They tend to expect too much of their children too soon and often characterize their infants as being fussy. This limited knowledge may cause teenagers to respond to their infants inappropriately. Sex Education
Comprehensive sex education can for the most part be considered to people as having no effect on teens to avoid sex, but others can see it has a way to decrease teen pregnancies in America. According to Advocates for Youth (2009), comprehensive sex education programs helped youth “delay onset of sexual activity, reduce the frequency of sexual activity, reduce number of sexual partners, and increase condom and contraceptive use.” An important component of an ongoing sex is effective communication with parents. When peers are the primary source of sexual information, it is transmitted and exchanged in secret conversation and contains a large amount of misinformation. Adolescent need precise and concrete information that we allow then to answer questions such as “What if I start my period in the middle of class?” or “How can I keep people from telling I have an erection?” it is important to tell them what they want to know and what they can expect to happen as they became mature sexually.