Problematize the Exodus-Liberation-Settlement Motif from the Adivasi Perspective

Topics: Canaan, Israelites, Land of Israel Pages: 15 (5578 words) Published: August 24, 2013
PROBLEMATIZE THE EXODUS-LIBERATION-SETTLEMENT MOTIF FROM THE ADIVASI PERSPECTIVE
Prepared: Kyrshanborlang Mawlong.

Introduction: In this paper we are trying to discussion the difficulties that the Israelites faced during staying in Egypt and how God response to their crying by liberated them from the hand of the Egyptian and also how they enter and settled in Canaan. But, this liberation of the Israelite by God create an impact on the indigenous people of the Canaan, we could see there are many problems or difficulties of Canaanite in mix up with Israelites either in culture, religious and social as a whole. We will also see the situation of Adivasi in India how they are suppressed by the oppressors or non- Adivasis/high caste. The Adivasi are facing many problems in their life just like the Canaanite has met. 1. Exodus Event: Biblical perspective

The date of the liberating event of the Israelites from Egyptian bondage is a debated question. Walter C. Kaiser in his book “A History of Israel: From the Bronze Age Through The Jewish Wars,” assert that the Israelites left Egypt around 1270-1250 B.C. and entered Canaan around 1230-1220 B.C.

The events of Exodus show how God by his grace chose the people of Israel and entered into a deeper relationship with them. The story begins with the family of Jacob, which moved to Egypt to escape the famine. After Jacob’s son Joseph rose from slavery to become Pharaoh’s right-hand person, Jacob’s family migrated and settled in Egypt. The biblical record affirms that the Israelites were fruitful and prolific; they multiplied and grew exceedingly strong, so that the land was filled with them. Then a new king arose who did not know Joseph. He wants to get rid of the Israelite because of the fear that they would fight against them and run away from the land. The method he used was that the king made them forced labourers and put taskmasters over them. The Egyptians thus oppressed them ruthlessly and imposed heavy task on them and made their lives bitter. So the Israelites groaned and cried to their God of the Ancestors to liberate them. In the midst of their suffering, Yahweh was not silent and inactive; He took initiatives and raises up Moses to lead the Israelites out of bondage and Joshua to lead the Israelites to enter, conquest and settled in Canaan. 2. Liberation:

As mention above, Israelites experienced the cruelty and exploitation of the Egyptians and even not paid properly but provide with food supply. In the phase of bondage the Israelites crying out from oppression. Their cry is not a prayer, but one of pain. But it reaches God’s ear given His concern for the threat to His creation. Yahweh through Moses performed many miracles. These miracles affected the economy of the land of Egypt. Water got polluted. Agriculture suffered. They lost their sons and animals. These force the king Pharaoh to let the Israelites go. But, as Pharaoh hearing of the direction in which the Israelites were headed, he know that they would encounter the river Yam Suph, so he change his mind and sent his elite chariot corps after them (Exodus 14:6-10). But Yahweh took initiative and delivered His people with three distinct miracles, that is, a shift in position of the cloud, opening the water and the closing the water.

The number of people who moved out from Egypt was very large. According to Exodus 12:37, 38:26; Number 1:46; 2:32; 11:21; 26:51, the approximate figure was 600,000 as the number of men. 3. Settlement:

After Moses died, Joshua became the new leader of the Israelites. The biblical accounts of the conquest and settlement cover four main areas: Transjordania, the Central Hill country, the Southern region, and the North. Joshua himself was prepared for conquest. The conquest of Jericho was a sample victory. Israel simply followed the instructions of the Lord. The Israelites marched around the city seven times, the walls of the city fell and they could enter to take...

Bibliography: Anderson, G.W. The History and Religion of Israel. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Augustine, Sr. Leena. “The Plight of Adivasi Domestic Maids: A Call to Liberating Praxis.” In Sevartham: Indian Culture in a Christian Context. Vol. 36. 2011. Ranchi: St. Albert’s College, 2011.
Broadie, Elsie. The Chosen Nation; Book one; Founders and Leaders. Headington Hill Hall: The Religious Education Press, 1968.
Ceresko, A. R. “Potsherds and Pioneers: Recent Research on the Origin of Israel.” In Indian Theological Studies. vol.34. 1997.
Dungdung, Gladson. “Adivasis Towards Violence.” In Social Actio. Edited by Christopher Lakra, Volume 60. New Delhi: Social Action, 2010.
Gunneberg, Antonius H.J. “Israel.” In Encyclopedia of Christianity. Edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley, Vol.2 E-I. Michigan: William B.Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2001.
Hans, Rev. Cyril. “The Adivasis of Jharkhand: Contemporary Issues and Responses.” In Sevartham:Indian Culture in a Christian Context. Vol. 36. 2011.
Harrison, R.K. Old Testament Times. Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 1970.
Herom, A. S. “Adivasi/Tribal Heritage.” In Theologizing Tribal Heritage: A Critical Re-Look. Edited by Hrangthan Chhungi. Delhi: ISPCK, 2008.
Kaiser, Walter C. A History of Israel: From the Bronze Age Through The Jewish Wars. USA: Broadman and Hollman Publisher, 1998.
Lasor, William Sanford. Et al., Old TestamentSurvey: The Message, Form, And Background of the Old Testament. UK: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1996.
Legrand, Lucien. The Bible on Culture; Belong or Dissenting?. Bangalore: Theological Publications in India, 2001.
Libolt, C. G. “Canaanites.” In The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia vol.1. Edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley. Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1979.
Mawrie, Barnes L. “Experience of the Tribal Historical, Political, Socio-cultural Contexts.” In Dalit-Tribal Theological Interface:Current Trends in Subaltern Theologies. Edited by James Massey and Shimreingam Shimray. New Delhi: CDS, 2007.
Rhoades, B.L. The Old Testament. New York: Harper and Brother Publishers, 1960.
Satterthwaite, P.E. and D. W. Baker. “Nation of Canaan.” In Dictionary of the Old Testament Pentateuch. Edited by T. Desmond Alexander and David W. Baker. Illinois: Inter Varsity Press, 1984.
Thomas, M. A Christian Theology in the Indian Context. Delhi: ISPCK, 2001.
Wood, Leon J. A Survey of Israel’s History. Michigan: Zondervan, 1986.
[ 3 ]. E Philip Davis, The Exodus is such a significant event in Israel’s history, www.ephilipdavis.com/exodus.pdf‎ (Accessed on the 18 July 2013).
[ 4 ]. A Class note by A. I. Kharshiing (2012)
[ 5 ]
[ 6 ]. William Sanford Lasor, et al., Old TestamentSurvey: The Message, Form, And Background of the Old Testament (UK: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1996), 68-71.
[ 10 ]. G.W. Anderson, The History and Religion of Israel (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), 28-31.
[ 11 ]. Leon J. Wood, A Survey of Israel’s History (Michigan: Zondervan, 1986) 142.
[ 13 ]. B.L.Rhoades, The Old Testament (New York: Harper and Brother Publishers, 1960), 95-100.
[ 17 ]. Walter C. Kaiser, A History of Israel: From the Bronze Age Through The Jewish Wars (USA: Broadman and Hollman Publisher, 1998), 145.
[ 18 ]. Peter Ignatius, “Interpretative Theories of Israelite Settlement,” in Jeevadhara: The Struggle for the Past: Historiography Today XXXII/187 (January 2002): 95-106.
[ 19 ]. Temsuyanger, “Israelite Tribal As Resistance And Revolt Against Domination: Some Insights For Coalition Politics In Contemporary India,” in Journal of Tribal Studies, .XII/2 (July-December 2007): 76-88.
[ 21 ]. R.K.Harrison, Old Testament Times (Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 1970), 162.
[ 22 ]. Antonius H.J.Gunneberg, “Israel,” in Encyclopedia of Christianity, edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley, Vol.2 E-I (Michigan: William B.Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2001), 769.
[ 24 ]. P.E. Satterthwaite and D. W. Baker, “Nation of Canaan,” in Dictionary of the Old Testament Pentateuch, edited by T. Desmond Alexander and David W. Baker (Illinois: Inter Varsity Press, 1984), 600-605.
[ 26 ]. Lucien Legrand, The Bible on Culture; Belong or Dissenting? (Bangalore: Theological Publications in India, 2001), 6-8.
[ 27 ]. A. R. Ceresko, “Potsherds and Pioneers: Recent Research on the Origin of Israel,” in Indian Theological Studies, vol.34 (1997): 11.
[ 29 ]. Gladson Dungdung, “Adivasis Towards Violence,” in Social Action, Edited by Christopher Lakra, Volume 60 (New Delhi: Social Action, 2010), 250-255
[ 30 ]
[ 32 ]. Sunil Kumar, “The Question of Assimilation: Adivasi Unrest in Kerala,” Social Action, vol. 63 (April-June 2013):136.
[ 37 ]. A. S. Herom, “Adivasi/Tribal Heritage,” in Theologizing Tribal Heritage: A Critical Re-Look, edited by Hrangthan Chhungi (Delhi: ISPCK, 2008), 132-133.
[ 38 ]. Rev. Cyril Hans, “The Adivasis of Jharkhand: Contemporary Issues and Responses,” in Sevartham:Indian Culture in a Christian Context, Vol. 36 (2011): 39.
[ 40 ]. Elsie Broadie, The Chosen Nation; Book one; Founders and Leaders (Headington Hill Hall: The Religious Education Press, 1968), 71-73.
[ 41 ]. Robert A. Guisepi, Canaanite culture and religion, http://history-world.org/canaanite_culture_and_religion.htm (Accessed on the 21th July 2013)
[ 42 ]
[ 43 ]. Elsie Broadie, The Chosen Nation; Book one; Founders and Leaders (Headington Hill Hall: The Religious Education Press, 1968), 71-73.
[ 44 ]. C. G. Libolt, “Canaanites,” in The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia vol.1, edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley (Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1979), 4589.
[ 45 ]. Kah-Jin Jeffrey Kuan, “Reading with New Eyes: Social Location and the Bible” http://www.psr.edu/files_psr/Kuan_ReadingNewEyes.pdf (Accessed on the 16 July 2013)
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • The Exodus Essay
  • Exodus Essay
  • Plague on the Firstborn from Exodus Essay
  • Describe the settlement of the Western Hemisphere from the perspective of a Native American. Essay
  • The Exodus Essay
  • Exodus Exegesis Essay
  • “the Awakening” from a Feminist Perspective Essay
  • Philosophy from the Female Perspective Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free