problem solving by sir panopio

Topics: Problem solving, Problem, Critical thinking Pages: 11 (2372 words) Published: December 13, 2014
THE NATURE OF PROBLEM SOLVING
Introduction
Problems in the Real World

Chapter 1

Critical and Creative Thinking
g
Classifications of Problems

The Nature of Problem Solving

Polya’s Heuristics
Mathematical Modeling
Problem Solving Chapter 1

 A problem is an opportunity for improvement.

2

 The
he impo
importance
tance of goals in solving a pproblem
oblem

 A problem is the difference between your current state
and your goal state.
 A problem results from the recognition of a present
imperfect and the belief in the possibility of a better
future.

Problem Solving Chapter 1

Problem Solving Chapter 1

1

 The management of a problem in a way that
successfully meets the goals established for
treating it.

Problem Solving Chapter 1

3

4

Two Basic Approaches to Problem Solving

 stop it

Problem solving is a process by
which the learner discovers a
combination of previously learned
rules that he/she can apply to achieve
a solution. (Holroyd 1985)

Problem Solving Chapter 1

– the cause or source of the problem is attacked

 mop it
– the effects or symptoms of the problem are
attacked
5

Problem Solving Chapter 1

6

Stop It

Mop It
 Treat It.

 Prevent It.

 Tolerate It
It.

 Eliminate It.

 Redirect It.

 Reduce it.

Problem Solving Chapter 1

7

General Guidelines for Problem Solving

Problem Solving Chapter 1

8

General Guidelines for Problem Solving
– Clarify the Problem

 Problem Exploration

 Define the Key terms of the problem
 Articulate the assumptions
 Obtain needed information

– State the Problem
 State what the problem is
 Restate the problem
 State the problem more

Problem Solving Chapter 1

9

General Guidelines for Problem Solving

10

General Guidelines for Problem Solving

– Explain the Problem

– Put the Problem in Context

 Discuss the problem with someone else
 Look at the problem from different viewpoints
 Ask a series of whys.

Problem Solving Chapter 1

Problem Solving Chapter 1

 What is the history of the problem?
 What is the problem environment?
 What are the constraints?

11

Problem Solving Chapter 1

12

General Guidelines for Problem Solving

General Guidelines for Problem Solving

 Goal Establishment

 Idea Generation

– Consider Ideal Goals
– Establish Practical Goals

Problem Solving Chapter 1

– Read, research, think, ask questions, discuss
– Use idea generation techniques
(brainstorming, forced relationships, random
stimulation, and so on)
– Allow time to incubate during various
phases of idea generation
Problem Solving Chapter 1

13

General Guidelines for Problem Solving

14

General Guidelines for Problem Solving

 Idea Selection

 Implementation
– Try the solution
– Make adjustments

– Evaluate the possibilities
– Choose the solution(s)

Problem Solving Chapter 1

Problem Solving Chapter 1

15

16

Problems in the Real World

General Guidelines for Problem Solving
 Evaluation
– Determine whether the solution worked
– Remember that many solutions are better
described as partially successful or partially
unsuccessful, rather than as an either/or in a
success/failure division

Problem Solving Chapter 1

17






Truth Problems
Counting and Enumeration Problems
Resource Allocation Problems
Decision Making Problems

Problem Solving Chapter 1

18

Critical Thinking Involves
Recognizing underlying assumptions.

Critical thinking is the process to reflect on, assess and
judge the assumption underlying our own and others
ideas and efforts.

Scrutinizing arguments.
Judging ideas.
ideas
Judging the rationality of these justifications by
comparing them to a range of varying
interpretations and prospective.

Creative thinking is the process we use to develop ideas
that unique, useful, and worthy of further elaboration.

Problem...
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