problem analysis

Topics: Computer, Personal computer, Human-computer interaction Pages: 255 (41089 words) Published: March 16, 2014


Edited by Richard Harper, Tom Rodden, Yvonne Rogers and Abigail Sellen

Being Human: Human-Computer Interaction in the year 2020
Editors: Richard Harper, Tom Rodden, Yvonne Rogers and Abigail Sellen ISBN: 978-0-9554761-1-2
Publisher: Microsoft Research Ltd
7 J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0FB, England
The information, findings and opinions contained in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of Microsoft Research Ltd or Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft Research Ltd and Microsoft Corporation do not guarantee the accuracy of any information presented herein.

Personal non-commercial use of this publication is permitted. For permission to re-print or republish any portion of this publication for commercial purposes, please contact as above. © 2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

The question persists and indeed
grows whether the computer will make
it easier or harder for human beings to
know who they really are, to identify
their real problems, to respond more
fully to beauty, to place adequate value
on life, and to make their world safer
than it now is.
Norman Cousins – The Poet and the Computer, 1966

About This Report 8
General Introduction 10

1 Our Changing World 12
1.1Changing Computers 14

GUIs to Gestures 16  VDUs to Smart Fabrics 18  Handsets to the World in our Hands 19 Simple Robots to Autonomous Machines That Learn 20  Hard Disks to Digital Footprints 21 Shrink-Wrapped to Mash-Ups 23  Answer-Phones to Always-On 24 1.2Changing Lives 25

Learning Differently 25  New Ways of Family Living 26  New Ways of Growing Older 28

1.3Changing Societies 29
Summary 31

2 Transformations in Interaction 32
2.1Human Values in the Face of Change 34
2.2The End of Interface Stability 36

The shifting boundary between computers and humans 36  The shifting boundary between computers and the everyday world 38  Living in a computational ecosystem 39 2.3The Growth of Techno-Dependency 40

Living in an increasingly technology-reliant world 40  Living with increasingly clever computers 42 2.4The Growth of Hyper-Connectivity 43

Living in a more socially connected world 43  Being part of a digital crowd 45

2.5The End of the Ephemeral 46

Managing expanding digital footprints 46  Living in an increasingly monitored world 47

2.6The Growth of Creative Engagement 48

Augmenting human reasoning 48  New forms of creative engagement 50

Summary 51

3 HCI: Looking Forward 52
3.1The Way Forward 54

From User Experience to Human Values 55

3.2Extending the Research and Design Cycle 58

Stage 1: Understand 59  Stage 2: Study 60  Stage 3: Design 61  Stage 4: Build 62  Stage 5: Evaluate 63

3.3Three Case Studies 64

Case Study 1: Trading versus trafficking content 64

Case study 2: Tracking versus surveillance in families 69

Case study 3: The ‘value’ of augmenting human memory 72

3.4New concepts, frameworks and theories 76
Summary 77

4 Recommendations 78
Appendix: What is Human-Computer Interaction? 84
Bibliography 87
HCI 2020 Forum Participants 90
Glossary 96
Picture Credits 98

About this Report
In March 2007, Microsoft Research organised the ‘HCI 2020’

what was possible when HCI first developed. As a result,

meeting at the El Bulli Hacienda Hotel near Seville, Spain. The

many members of the HCI community have begun to voice

event’s title expressed its key question: what will Human-

concerns that HCI needs a new agenda if it is to continue to

Computer Interaction (HCI) be like in the year 2020? That

be relevant for the 21st century.

question is important because HCI, significant as it was in
the late 20th century, has a pivotal part to play in the 21st,

If there was one thing that the...

References: These papers describe the original research referred to in the
Moore, R (2007) ‘Thanks for the memory’ in Interact: HCI
Brown, B, Taylor, A, Izadi, S, Sellen, A and Kaye, J (2007)
‘Locating Family Values: A Field Trial of the Whereabouts
M (2007) ‘Trafficking: design for the viral exchange of
Springer Verlag.
Taylor, A, Harper, R, Swan, L, Izadi, S, Sellen, A, and Perry,
M (2007) ‘Homes that make us smart,’ in Personal and
Sellen, A, Fogg, A, Hodges, S, Rother, C and Wood, K (2007)
Ubiquitous Computing (special issue “At Home with IT:
Harper, R, Randall, D, Smyth, N, Evans, C, Heledd, L and
Moore, R (2008) ‘The past is a different place: They do things
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