1. What did Cesare Beccaria, the Enlightenment thinker, mean when he said that a punishment should fit the crime?
A The severity of punishment should parallel the severity of the harm resulting from the crime. B The punishment should be severe enough to outweigh the pleasure obtained from the crime (such as the material gain from committing a robbery).
2. What reforms in penal institutions did John Howard advocate in his book The State of the Prisons in England and Wales (1777)?
A Penal environments should be made safe, humane, and orderly. B Incarceration should not only punish inmates, but also instill discipline and promote reform. C Prisons should provide an orderly institutional routine of religious teaching, hard work, and solitary confinement to promote introspection and penance.
3. What is generally considered the first state prison in the United States, and of what did the daily routine of inmates in this prison consist?
The first state prison in the United States was actually called a jail—the Walnut Street Jail of Philadelphia, which was a holding facility converted into a prison.
Inmates daily routine consisted of:
A Laboring in solitary cells, doing handicraft work
B Receiving large doses of religious teaching
C Reflecting on their misdeeds
4. How did the Pennsylvania system of confinement differ from the Auburn system of confinement, and which system became the model followed by other states?
The Pennsylvania system, as noted above, focused on solitary confinement in which inmates performed handicraft work, studied religious writings, and reflected on their misdeeds. The Auburn system (also called the New York system, the silent system, and the congregate system) focused on inmates working and eating together, then returning to solitary cells in the evening.
The Auburn system prevailed for three reasons:
A The Pennsylvania system of solitary confinement created harmful psychological effects, such as insanity. B The Auburn system allowed for factory production in prison labor, which was far more cost-effective than individual handicrafts were. C Because inmates in the Auburn system spent most of their time outside of their cells, their cells could be smaller with more inmates housed in less space.
5. What were the main features of the reformatory?
The features of the reformatory were as follows:
• Reformatories were designed for younger, less hardened offenders between 16 and 30 years of age. • They were based on a military model of regimentation, emphasizing academic and vocational training in addition to work. • They used a classification system in which inmates were rated according to their progress toward reformation. • Sentences were for indeterminate periods, in which inmates served sentences within given ranges (such as between two and eight years). They could be released early or given parole for good behavior.
6. According to John Irwin, what three types of penal institutions have dominated different parts of the twentieth century?
The three types of institutions, and their approximate heydays, are as follows:
• The “big house” (1900–1930): A walled prison with large cellblocks with three or more tiers, which housed an average of 2,500 men. These prisons were old penitentiaries and reformatories that were converted and expanded to accommodate larger inmate populations. Big houses were inmate warehouses (you can point out to students that the concept of warehousing inmates is not new) focusing on custody and repression. • Correctional institutions (1940–1960): A smaller and more modern-looking facility than the big house. These institutions supplemented, but did not replace, big houses. They emerged as part of the medical model, which held that crime was similar to personal illness in that it required treatment. The emphasis, therefore, was on treatment and the subtle coercion that inmates who did not respond to treatment would not receive...
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