"Jail" redirects here. For other uses, see Jail (disambiguation). For other uses, see Prison (disambiguation).
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A prison (from Old French prisoun), also known as gaol or jail, is a place in which people are physically confined and usually deprived of a range of personal freedoms. Imprisonment or incarceration is a legal penalty that may be imposed by the state for the commission of a crime. Other terms used are penitentiary, correctional facility, remand centre, detention centre, and gaol or jail. In some legal systems some of these terms have distinct meanings. A criminal suspect who has been charged with or is likely to be charged with criminal offense may be held on remand in prison if he or she is denied or unable to meet conditions of bail, or is unable or unwilling to post bail. A criminal defendant may also be held in prison while awaiting trial or a trial verdict. If found guilty, a defendant will be convicted and may receive a custodial sentence requiring imprisonment. As well as convicted or suspected criminals, prisons may be used for internment of those not charged with a crime. Prisons may also be used as a tool of political repression to detain political prisoners, prisoners of conscience, and "enemies of the state", particularly by authoritarian regimes. In times of war or conflict, prisoners of war may also be detained in prisons. A prison system is the organizational arrangement of the provision and operation of prisons. Contents [hide]
2 Design and facilities
2.2 Prison design
3 Security levels
3.1 England and Wales
3.2 United States
4 Special types of prison
5 Population statistics
6 See also
8 Further reading
9 External links
The Huntsville Unit (also known as "The Walls") of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice in Huntsville, Texas. Texas' execution chamber is located in this unit
For most of history, imprisoning has not been a punishment in itself, but rather a way to confine criminals until a punishment (often corporal or capital punishment) was administered. There were prisons used for detention in Jerusalem in Old Testament times, and the Bible details the imprisonment of Joseph in Egypt. Dungeons were used to hold prisoners; those who were not killed or left to die there often became galley slaves or faced penal transportations. In other cases debtors were often thrown into debtor's prisons, until they paid their gaolers enough money in exchange for a limited degree of freedom. Only in the 19th century, beginning in Britain, did prisons as known today become commonplace, however institutions dating earlier into the 16th century in the Netherlands (Rasphuizen)are the first instances of institutions for the main purpose of confining offenders. The modern prison system was born in London, influenced by the utilitarianism of Jeremy Bentham. Bentham's panopticon introduced the principle of observation and control that underpins the design of the modern prison. The notion of prisoners being incarcerated as part of their punishment and not simply as a holding state until trial or hanging, was at the time revolutionary. This is when prisons had begun to be used as criminal rehabilitation centers. Britain practiced penal transportation of convicted criminals to penal colonies in the British Empire, in the Americas from the 1610s...
References: ^ "Prisons". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
^ Taylor, Alan. American Colonies. Penguin: London(2001).
^ International Profile of Women 's Prisons (144p), International Centre for Prison Studies, April 2008
^ Report of the Surveyor-General of Prisons, London, 1844 reproduced in Mayhew, Criminal Prisons of London, London, 1862
^ Walmsley, Roy (October 2010). "World Prison Population List (Ninth Edition)" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-12-17.
^ "Inside America 's $37 billion prison economy". CNNMoney. March 15, 2007.
^ Engdahl, Sylvia (2010)
Further reading 
Carlson, Peter M.; Garrett, Judith Simon, Prison and Jail Administration: Practice and Theory, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 1999.
Diiulio, John J., Governing Prisons: A Comparative Study of Correctional Management, Simon and Schuster, 1990. ISBN 0-02-907883-0.
World Prison Population List (fourth edition) UK Home Office, 2003. ISSN 1473-8406.
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