The penitentiary is a place of incarceration of offenders with the idea of punishment and treatment to reduce crimes in society. The penitentiary has known different transformations throughout the history of prisons. World War 2 had a major impact on the development of prison labor. Even the actual prison system contents programs of deterrence to answer to the needs of society in the reduction of crimes; the incarceration number is increasing, and the penitentiary system is showing signs of failure.
The penitentiary is a place of confinement and deprivation of people of a range of liberty. Inside the prison, the inmates are required to live according to the dictates of the administration that also restricts their movements (Nancy, 2006). The rules of the penitentiary control the inmates from the time they enter the prison to the time of they release. The objective of the penitentiary system is to punish and rehabilitate individuals who are involved in criminal activities to protect the public against crimes.
The American penitentiary system had major reforms through the history of prisons in the United States. The penitentiary system developed in response to the arbitrary, often cruel, corporal punishments that were inflicted on offenders in previous eras in the hopes that would deter others from crime. Other countries rapidly discussed the reform strategy of the American penitentiary system and the prison reforms that content human conditions of incarceration. This reform was to provide effective sentences to prisons and to prevent corporal punishments and the death penalty for minor crimes. By the middle of the nineteenth century, prisons were the accepted aftermath of conviction rather than the exception; it was not fulfilling their promise and, in fact, was generally as cruel and inhumane as any previous method of punishment (Erika, 2001).
The types of public responses to crime varied based on the beliefs regarding the causes of...
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