PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPMENT
Early foundations are critical.
Role of maturation and learning.
Follows definite and predictable pattern.
All individuals are different.
Each phase has characteristic behaviour.
Each phase of development has hazards.
Development is aided by simulation.
devt: is affected by cultural changes.
Social expectations in every stage.
Traditional beliefs about people of all ages.
STAGES IN LIFE SPAN
PRE-NATAL PERIOD – CONCEPTION - BIRTH
-Birth- end of 2w
- 2w- 2y
EARLY CHILDHOOD -2-6
LATE CHILDHOOD -6-12
ADOLESCENCE -13/14 - 18
EARLY ADULTHOOD -18-40
-40-50 MA / 50-60 LA
270-280 days. 10 lunar months
Basic body structure and organs form
Rapid physical growth
Vulnerability to environmental influence is great
Heredity potentials influenced strongly by envt.
Fixing up of sex
High rate of growth(1cell to 20 inches length)
Period of hazards
Attitude of significant people
Period of Zygote
Lack of Uterine preparation
Period of Embryo
Period of Foetus
Factors influence development
Age of mother,
Illness and infections
Blood RH factor
Drugs, x-rays, envtl. Hazards,
Paternal factors-smok,alcohol, radiations , pesticide
Diet and physical condition of the mother
Loss of weight
Increase height& weight, muscles
Bones and skeleton transformed
Brain cells grows
Breast feeding starts
Reflex of new born
Nature –Nurture influence
*psycho-social- Personality-reacting to
situations, extrovert, depression, leadership,nail biting,sleepwalking,other emotions & disorders like schizophrenia, infantile autism, alcoholism.
Sensory capacity increases
Touch is the earliest sense
Smell- can distinguish different odour
Taste sense well developed
Hearing is least developed
Vision- half of the adult- color vision is absent or minimal
SIDS-sudden infant death syndrome-crib death
Unfavorable parental environment
Post maturity- pre-maturity
Psychological –traditional beliefs
Helplessness , developmental lag, plateau, lack of stimulation, new parent blue, unfavorable attitude,..
1.True foundation,- 2.,Age of rapid growth & devt. ,3Decreasing dependency 4 Increased individuality 5 Beginning of socialization 6.Sex role typing 7.Appealing age 8,Age of creativity
Hazardous-----(Ph)mortality, crib death, illness, accidents, malnutrition, foundation of obesity, habits, (Psy)-delayed motor devt., delayed speech, emotional,play,social, family, //
Rolling over , Sitting up, Crawling , Standing
Play years 2-6
Physical growth ,Language devt.- chatter box , Socialisation , Peer influence, Negativism, self-centered, increased independence .Trust-vs-mistrust ,Personality-emotional, temperamental, cognitive
regularity & predictability
approach/withdrwal- initial response
Age of troublesome, pre-school, pre-gang age
Child abuse & neglect
Causes__ characteristics of abuser
90% at home, 90% not psychotic, unrealistic expectations
Parent – child...
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