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Prevalence of Behavioral Risk for the Non-Communicable Diseases

By skadam86 Feb 04, 2013 1013 Words
Dr. Suhas Kadam
 MPH (SE)
 2011HS026


Individual Study
Title of the study
A study to determine the prevalence of
behavioral risk factors for Non-Communicable
Diseases (NCD) in Shivaji-Nagar Slum
(Mumbai)
Organization – Urban Health Centre (UHC)
Nair Hospital
Area – Shivaji Nagar, Govandi

Background…
1.

It has been observed that the burden posed by communicable
diseases is still in existence in low socio-economic urban areas.

2.

The growing urbanization, poor dietary habits and low
awareness regarding the major risk factors are contributing
towards rising epidemic of NCDs.

3.

Studies conducted across India and other Asian countries report a higher prevalence of coronary artery disease in urban areas as compared with rural areas.

4.

There exists a number of risk factors such as high blood
pressure, high serum cholesterol, inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables, excess weight, physical inactivity, and alcohol and tobacco use.

Leading Causes of NCDs:
1. Unhealthy diet
2. Lack o physical exercise
3. Alcohol use
4. Tobacco use
However, NCDs are largely preventable because unhealthy diet, lack of physical exercise, alcohol use and tobacco use are the behavioral risk factors which we can modify by intervention.  In India limited studies have focused on assessing the

prevalence of behavioral risk factors exclusively in urban
slum population. (Anand et al, 2007)
 Successful intervention in the early age group will result in healthy life year’s gain in the reproductive period of life. Therefore there is need to understand the distribution of
behavioral risk factors.

Objective: To assess the prevalence of various behavioral risk factors of non-communicable diseases in the urban slum population of
shivaji nagar, Mumbai.
 To assess the relationship between various socio-economic factors and various NCD risk factors in the urban slum
population of shivaji nagar, Mumbai.

Specific objective:To determine the prevalence of
 Tobacco use
 Alcohol use
 fruit and vegetable consumption
 Physical activity

Research Questions…
1.

How behavioral risk factors of NCDs are distributed among
the population of shivaji nagar slum?

2.

What is the relationship exists between various socioeconomic factors and NCD risk factors among the population of shivaji nagar slum?

Study design – Cross-sectional, descriptive study using the quantitative approach
Universe / frame – The universe is 900 household in the five plots numbered 5, 6, 11, 12, 18 in shivaji nagar.

Sample Size – 150 individuals
Unit of Analysis- individual above the age of 20 years (M/F both)

Sampling Procedure – Simple Random Sampling
Data collection tools – Interview Schedule (structured questionnaire)

Data collection methods – Survey Design, face to face interview Data analysis – Data analysis is done with the help of Microsoft excel and SPSS version 20.0

Socio-Demographic Profile
Responde
nt age

21-30
years

31-40
years

41-50
years

51-60
years

>61 years

percent

28.20

28

20

12

11.30

Sex

%

Male

64%

Female

36%

Responde
nt
education

Illiterate

Primary
education

Secondar
y
education

Higher
Graduate
secondary and more

Percent

11.30

8

61.30

14

4.70

Responde 1 – 5000
nt income

6-10000

11-15000

16-20000

>21000

Percent

47.30

19.30

2.70

4

Responde Hindu
nt religion

Muslim

Jain

Christian

Sikh and
others

Percent

40

6

3.3

0

26.70

50.70

Results
1. Tobacco use Type of tobacco

Smoke

Smokeless

Both

None

Percent

2

40

4

56

MISRI – total 17 individual found who were using MISRI for cleaning their teeth.
Sex

Number of people using
MISRI

Male

7

Female

10

2. Alcohol use – Prevalence rate of alcohol use in this
community is (16.67%), and none of the females reported
the use of alcohol. Which is much lower than the other
urban or rural setting.

2. Diet – Fruit Intake:Fruit Intake per week

Percent of population

1 or 2 days a week

33.33%

3 or 4 days a week

32%

5 or 6 days a week

6%

Daily

28.7%



Green Vegetable intake: There is 5% of the population who
eats green vegetable 1 or 2 days/week, and 14 % of the
population who eats green vegetable 3-4 days a week. Approx
7% of the population eats green vegetable 5-6 days/week, and lastly almost 74% of the population eats green vegetables
every day.



Non-Vegetarian food Type of Diet

Percent of people

Non-Vegetarian

86.7% (130)

Vegetarian

13.3 % (20)



Out of the total 130 non-vegetarian people around 10% of
people frequently eat beef as their non-vegetarian food which contains more fatty acids, which is not good for their health.



Oil usage:
Type of Oil
Ordinary ground nut oil

60.70%

Sunflower oil

28.70

Soya-bean oil

0.70%

Mustard oil (rai)

5.30%

Palm oil

3.30%

Other


Percentage

0.70%

Ordinary ground-nut oil - contains the highest saturated fatty acid. The high usage of saturated fatty acid cause CVDs and
other health problems.

4) Physical activity Time spent doing
exercise/jogging/cycling

Percent of people out of
150

< or = 10 min

49.30%

11-30 min

38.70%

31-60 min

7.30%

> 60 min

4.70%

Leisure time activity

Percent of people out of 150

TV/ Newspaper

24.7%

Rest/ Sleep

24.0%

Walking/ Jogging

48.7%

Household chores

2.7%

Conclusion…
1.

The study documents the high prevalence of behavioral risk
factors for NCD in this slum. The population residing in this slum is generally poor and thought to be at low risk for NCDs, but the study shows there is high prevalence of behavioral risk factors for NCD.

2.
3.
4.

The consumption of inappropriate diet is associated with
many NCDs, which is prevalent in this community.
Regular and adequate daily physical activity is an effective means to prevent NCDs. Around 50% of population spent
less than 10 minutes of time doing physical activity
(exercise/cycling/jogging).

Recommendations…
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Framing appropriate policies for tobacco and alcohol
control
Promotion of good diet and adequate physical activity
Need to strengthen the government health system to address
the challenges of NCDs
At the community level, need to create environment that
promotes the adoption of healthy behaviors.
Community involvement and community empowerment

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