The president is the foreign policy leader for the United States with an important political, military and economic role in the international arena. If there is collision between the president and congress, can congress restrain the president in foreign policy making?
The era of globalization has witnessed the growing influence of a number of unconventional international actors, from non-governmental organizations, to multi-national corporations, to global political movements. Traditional, state-centric definitions of foreign policy as "the policy of a sovereign state in its interaction with other sovereign states is no longer sufficient. Several alternative definitions are more helpful at highlighting aspects of foreign policies. The first views foreign policy as "those external goals for which the nation is prepared to commit its resources" By focusing on what a country does rather than what it says, this pragmatic definition usefully separates a country's rhetoric from its true intent and its material capabilities. However, lack of action can also constitute a policy-the policy of an isolationist state is defined by its very unwillingness to commit resources. A second conceptualization of foreign policy is as "the range of actions taken by varying sections of the government of a state in its relations with other bodies similarly acting on the international stage...in order to advance the national interest". Notable here is the recognition that governments do not act as monolithic, static entities, and that non-state actors may at times be as influential as states. However, the assumption that governments always know what is in the "national interest" and always rationally work towards its realization is debatable. For the purposes of this
References: The Congressional Research Service and the American Legislative Process". Congressional Research Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science: Lib-Pub. 3 (2 ed.). CRC Press. 2003. ISBN 9780824720797. http://books.google.com/books Government Information Quarterly Volume 26, Issue 2009, Pages 437-440 Congressional Research Service (CRS) at UCB Libraries GovPubs