Preservation method - Canning

Topics: Canning, Food preservation, Nicolas Appert Pages: 18 (4084 words) Published: May 27, 2014
Food Technology and HACCP

Food preservation method:
THE CANNING PROCESS
Federica Brazzoduro - 301307

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. HISTORY OF CANNED FOODp.3
2. CANNED FOODp.4
2.1. Which food do we can? p.4
2.2. Why do we can food?p.4
2.3. What makes food canning so safe? p.4
2.4. What makes it last longer?p.5
3. THE CANNING PROCESS p.5
3. a) Harvestingp.5
3. b) Washingp.6
3. c) Sorting/Gradingp.6
3. d) Preparationp.6
3. e) Blanching, Aseptic Procedurep.6
3.e.1Food alterationp.6
3.e.2 Blanching methodsp.6
3.e.3 Aseptic procedurep.7
3. f)Fillingp.7
3. g) Exaustingp.8
3.g.1. Exhausting methodsp.8
3. h) Sealingp.8
3. i) Cooking – Heat Sterilizationp.8
3. i. 1. pH level in canned foodp.8
3. i. 2. Heating temperatures and timingsp.8
3. j) Coolingp.8
3. k) Labeling/Casing, p.9
3. l) Storage for shipmentp.10
3. l. 1. Did you know…p.10
4. PACKAGING MATERIALS USED IN THE CANNING PROCESSp.10
5. EQUIPMENT USED IN CONVENTIONAL CANNING PROCESSp.10
6. NUTRITION VALUESp.10
7. POSSIBLE CANNING HAZARDSp.11
7. 1. Post-processing contaminationp.11
7. 2. Damaged/defected packagesp.11
7. 3. Industrial chemical materialp.11
8. CANNED FOOD TEMPERATURESp.12
9. BIBLIOGRAPHYp.13

1. HISTORY OF CANNED FOOD
The ‘canning’ preservation method dates back to the late 18th century in France when the Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, concerned about keeping his regiments fed, offered a cash reward to whoever could develop a reliable method of food conservation. Nicolas Appert, after 15 years of experimentation, had the background to find a conservation solution (having been a pickler, an expert confectioner, a brewer, a distiller, and a chef), and discovered that the application of heat to food in sealed airtight glass bottles preserved the food from deterioration and spoilage; Appert's principles were successfully trialed by the French Navy on a wide range of foods including meat, vegetables, fruit and even milk. It was an Englishman, Peter Durand, which took the process one step further and developed a method of sealing food into unbreakable iron containers coated with a fine layer of tin to stop it from rusting. Such system was then perfected by Bryan Dorkin and John Hall, who set up the first commercial canning factory in England in 1813. Peter Durand The tin container had the advantage over glass bottles of being lighter, easier to seal and less prone to damage during transportation and storage. The food can was born. No one knew at first why Nicolas Appert’s process preserved (and sterilized) food; it was more than 50 years later that Louis Pasteur provided the explanation for canning's effectiveness, when he was able to demonstrate that the growth of microorganisms is the cause of food spoilage. Cans continued to be used mainly by the army and navy and sent to distant British colonies until the 1920s. The first cans were large, heavy and a hammer and chisel were needed to open them; they were also expensive, because made by hand and a good tinsmith could only manufacture 6-10 cans a day. Gradually, their production became mechanised. The first tin cans were patented in the United States in 1826, but it was not until around 1839 that tin cans were wide spread in the U.S., and about 10 years later were being mass produced. The heating of the can under pressure was reckoned to improve the content’s flavour, texture and nutritional value. For this very reason, after the 1920s, canned food lost its military image and became fully accepted as part of the national diet. The industry continued steadily to progress and increase in efficiency. Today’s sophisticated production lines can produce in excess of 1,500 cans a minute, in all sorts of...

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Brooks, J. (2012, March 31). Bacteria in canned food. Retrieved from Safe food: http://foodsafetywithjaybee.blogspot.ch/2012/03/bacteria-in-canned-food.html
History of Commercial and Home Canning
Johnson, S. (2011, May). Steam Blanching Vs. Water Blanching: Cost, Efficiency and Product Quality. Retrieved from Key Technology: http://www.key-technology.cn/files/downloads/white-papers/Steam-Blanching-vs-Water-Blanching.pdf
Jose´ I
Safriet, D. (1995). Emission Factor Documentation for AP-42: Canned Fruits and Vegetables - Final Report. U. S. Environmental Protection.
Scheyder, E. (2010, June 10). Chemical BPA Used In Most Food Can Linings Raises Concerns. Retrieved from Unsurance journal: http://www.insurancejournal.com/news/national/2010/06/10/110610.htm
University, M
Walthers, M. (2011, May 15). Another canned response. Retrieved from Inside prevention: http://www.insideprevention.org/2011/05/another-canned-response.html
What we found
xx, S. (2012, January 15). That White Lining in Commercial Tinned Foods. Retrieved from coffeee2001.blogspot: http://coffeee2001.blogspot.ch/2012/01/that-white-lining-in-commercial-tinned.html
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