Present Status of Adivasis Migrated to Assam: A Case study of Golaghat district
Dr. Jatindra Nath Saikia.
Assam is famous for tea in the world. Tea is a labour intensive industry and there is more than 45 lakhs tea garden labour population living in Assam. This tea garden population comprises the tea labour market in Assam. Almost all the tea garden labourers are from Adivasi community and they had been brought by the Britishers during the colonial rules from different parts of India to engage as labourers in tea industry. These labourers have been suffering from different socio-economic problems since long. The paper discusses their livelihood patterns, socio-economic and educational status etc. The paper also highlights different problems relating to socio-cultural and economic that stands in the way of their development. The paper also discusses the history of migration of tea labourers to Assam and the problems they face to adjust with the local inhabitants due to their different socio-cultural background. The paper incorporates examples of brutality on the part of tea labourers so far as their livelihood is concerned and on the part of business communities when the Adivasis came out to streets with a violent mood to demand their rights. In order to prepare this paper both primary and secondary data have been used. Primary data have been collected by using an Interview Schedule and convenient sampling method has been used for analyzing them. In depth interviews have been conducted with the leaders of Assam Chah Mazddor Sangha, All Assam Tea Students Association, Assam Adivasi Students Association and a number of renowned scholars of their community. The paper reveals the present status of tea labourers of Assam in general and Golaghat district in particular.
Key Words: Adivasis, Tea labourer, Livelihood, Unemployment, Assam, Migration.
Present Status of Adivasis Migrated to Assam: A Case study of Golaghat district Dr. Jatindra Nath Saikia.
The paper starts with the meaning of the term ‘Adivasis’, a brief description of the adivasis in the ancient epics, history of their migration to Assam and the present status of Adivasis in Assam. The later part of the paper deals with the labour market of Assam along with a case study of Golaghat district, Assam. In order to prepare the paper both primary and the secondary information have been collected. Primary information has been collected by interviewing the leaders of tea garden labourers, Asom Chah Mazdoor Sangha and students’ leaders of the community. A series of in-depth interviews have also been conducted with a good number of intellectuals of the community. The author’s residence being surrounded by the tea estates, some of the information has been incorporated in this paper from the observations of the author. The secondary information has been collected from books, journals, news papers and different websites. The research endeavour is in this paper is descriptive and analytical. The main objective of this paper is to study the status of the adivasis living in Assam’s tea gardens and other different parts of the state. Another objective of the paper is to study the labour market formed by the tea garden and the ex-tea garden labourers in Assam and to discuss the probable hard time the state may have to face in future. Moreover, the paper has been prepared to highlight the present status of adivasis living in different tea gardens of Golaghat district, Assam. Though Assam is the abode of a large number of Tribes or adivasis, the paper discusses about the Adivasis brought to Assam before about 150 years ago. Since there are more than 70 lakhs ‘tea tribe’ and ‘ex-tea garden people’ live in Assam, a study of different aspects relating to their status is very important. The following section of the paper deals with the meaning of the term adivasi followed by other sections. The term Adivasi means...
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