Present Perfect

Topics: Grammatical tenses, Grammatical tense, Past tense, Future / Pages: 9 (2160 words) / Published: Apr 24th, 2011
Grammar Rules summary (Units 1-6)

Unit 1
GRAMMAR:

The Simple Present and Present Progressive Tenses:

Present Simple:

a. We can use the simple present to talk about actions or states in the future. (Ex: 5) b. We use the simple present to talk about states, habitual, actions, facts, and things that are generally considered to be true. (Ex: 1, 2, 3, 4) c. We use the simple present with adverbs of frequency to talk about how often states and actions occur تحدث . (Ex: 6)

Present Progressive:

d. We use the present progressive to talk about planned actions in the future. (Ex: 9) e. We use the present progressive in negative sentences with anymore to talk about an action that has stopped. (Ex: 10) f. We use present progressive to talk about actions in progress at the present moment. (Ex: 7) g. We use present progressive to talk about actions in progress at the present moment and might continue into the future. (Ex: 8)
Stative Verbs:
Stative verbs refer to states or conditions rather than to actions. They are generally not used in progressive form. They usually appear in the simple form even though they describe states that are in progress at the present moment.

Note:
In special cases, Stative verbs can appear in the progressive. For example, emphasizing the beginning or the slow progress of an action. - I’m understanding now = I’m beginning to understand.

Be and Have are used in the progressive form when they carry a special meaning other than existence (be) or possession (have). - I have two sons and now they are having their breakfast. (having = eating) - The chef is a nice guy, but today he is being rude. (acting rude)

PRACTICE: Exercise 2 page 7.

The Present Perfect & the Present Prefect Progressive:
The Present Perfect:
Formation: (Have / Has + past participle)
Used with: since, for, already, ever, never, yet, just.
Used to: Express an action that started

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