Prejudice And Institutional Racism

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Topics: Racism, Race
RACE
Race is one of the most complex concepts in Sociology. It is a social construct that artificially divides people into distinct groups based on characteristics such as physical appearance (particularly color), ancestral heritage, history, economic and political needs of a society at a given period of time. Science theories of race arose in the late 18th and early 19th century. The father of modern racism, Count Joseph Arthur de Gobineau proposed the existence of three races: white (Caucasian), Black (Negroid) and Yellow (Mongloid). According to his theory, blacks are least capable whereas white race possesses superior characteristics. In the year following World War 2, ‘race science’ has been discredited since they are no clear cut ‘races’
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* Bureaucratic delay and inertia in responding to minorities requests for cultural sensitivity in education and healthcare; in planning applications for social and cult places; in language policies; and in regeneration and neighborhood renewal programs in areas where minorities live

Racism can be subdivided into individual racism and institutional racism. Institutional racism is a system of procedures and patterns in all walks of life. For example, there are education, housing, businesses, employment, professional associations, religion and media. According to this view, institutions all promote policies that favor certain groups while discriminating against others. The effect of institutional racism is to perpetuate and maintain the power, influence and well-being of one group over
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Internalized Racism happens when people from targeted racial groups believe, act on, or enforce the dominant system of beliefs about themselves and members of their own racial group. For example, they may use creams to lighten their skin, believing that the most competent administrators or leaders are white. They feel that they cannot be as intelligent as white people, believing that racism is the result of people of color not being able to raise themselves up ‘by their own bootstraps’. On the other hand, Horizontal racism occurs when people from targeted racial groups help the dominant system of racial discrimination and oppression. It can happen between members of the same racial group (an Asian person telling another wearing a sari to ‘dress like an American’; a Latina telling another Latina to stop speaking Spanish) or between members of different, targeted racial groups (Latinos believing stereotypes about Native

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