prefect speech

Topics: Italy, Satire, Cesare Beccaria Pages: 3 (886 words) Published: October 15, 2014
Nineteen century poetry trends

Gabriele D’Annunzio’s nationalism
Benedetto Croce’s criticism
Literary trends before World War I
The “return to order”
Luigi Pirandello
The Hermetic movement
Social commitment and the new realism
Other writings
The end of the century
Poetry after World War II
Experimentalism and the new avant-garde
Dialect poetry
Women writers
Fiction at the turn of the 21st century
Facing the new millennium
Goldoni’s reform of the comedy
Metastasio’s reform of the operatic libretto was paralleled in the mid-18th century by Goldoni’s reform of comedy. Throughout the 17th century the commedia dell’arte—a colourful pantomime of improvisation, singing, mime, and acrobatics, often performed by actors of great virtuosity—had gradually replaced regular comedy, but by the early 18th century it had degenerated into mere buffoonery and obscenity with stereotyped characters (maschere, “masks”) and mannerisms. The dialogue was mostly improvised, and the plot—a complicated series of stage directions, known as the scenario—dealt mainly with forced marriages, star-crossed lovers, and the intrigues of servants and masters. Goldoni succeeded in replacing this traditional type of theatre with written works whose wit and vigour are especially evident when the Venetian scene is portrayed in a refined form of the local dialect. Perhaps because of his prolific output his work has sometimes been thought of as lacking in depth. His social observation is acute, however, and his characters are beautifully drawn. La locandiera (1753; “The Innkeeper”; Eng. trans. Mirandolina), with its heroine Mirandolina, a protofeminist, has things to say about class and the position of women that can still be appreciated today. Goldoni’s rival and bitter controversialist, fellow Venetian Carlo Gozzi (the reactionary brother of the more liberal journalist Gasparo), also wrote comedies, satirical verse, and an important autobiography. His Fiabe teatrali (1772;...
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