Pregnancy-induced hypertension is a rise in blood pressure, without proteinuria, during the second half of pregnancy.
Pre-eclampsia is a multisystem disorder, unique to pregnancy, that is usually associated with raised blood pressure and proteinuria. It rarely presents before 20 weeks' gestation.
Eclampsia is one or more convulsions in association with the syndrome of pre-eclampsia. (Duley, L. (2008). Eclampsia, which is considered a complication of severe preeclampsia, is commonly defined as new onset of grand mal seizure activity and/or unexplained coma during pregnancy or postpartum in a woman with signs or symptoms of preeclampsia. …show more content…
It is believed that these changes are due to the interaction between fetal and maternal allografts and result in systemic and local vascular changes. It has been shown that in patients with eclampsia, the development of uteroplacental arteries is hindered.
Hindrance of cerebral blood flow regulation: It is believed that in eclampsia there is abnormal cerebral blood flow in the setting of extreme hypertension. The regulation of cerebral perfusion is inhibited, vessels become dilated with increased permeability, and cerebral edema occurs, resulting in ischemia and encephalopathy. In extreme hypertension, normal compensatory vasoconstriction may become defective. Several autopsy findings support this model and consistently reveal swelling and fibrinoid necrosis of vessel walls.
Endothelial dysfunction: Factors associated with endothelial dysfunction have been shown to be increased in the systemic circulation of women suffering from eclampsia. These include the …show more content…
These endothelial abnormalities, in turn, cause hypertension by impairing renal-pressure natriuresis and increasing total peripheral resistance. The quantitative importance of the various endothelial and humoral factors in mediating the reduction in renal hemodynamic and excretory function and elevation in arterial pressure during preeclampsia are still unclear. Results from ongoing basic and clinical studies, however, should provide new and important information regarding the physiological mechanisms responsible for the elevation in arterial pressure in women with preeclampsia. (Granger, J. P., Alexander, Llinas, Bennett, & Khalil,. (2001).
What is HELLP syndrome and how does it differ from preeclampsia?
HELLP syndrome is a life-threatening liver disorder thought to be a type of severe preeclampsia. It is characterized by Hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells), Elevated Liver enzymes (which indicate liver damage), and Low Platelet count. (webmd.com).
What are the common medications used to treat preeclampsia, and what